Medical Disorders Asthma

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As noted previously, 20% of youth have two chronic disorders and 10% have three or more. Thus, finding a youth with one condition (e.g., a rheumatic disorder) does not mean that other disorders are not present. Asthma prevalence in children increased 3.6% in 1980 and 5.8% in 2003 (46). Asthma is one of the most common medical conditions among adolescents, and its prevalence has increased over the past few decades, including 46% increase in Australia, 4.3% in the United States, 34% in New Zealand, and 4.6% in Japan (47). Though research has produced improved

Table 8 Epidemiology of Substance Abuse in Europe

Lifetime use3 Lifetime use3 of other illicit drugs

Table 8 Epidemiology of Substance Abuse in Europe

Lifetime use3 Lifetime use3 of other illicit drugs

Country

Cigarette smoking

Alcohol consumption

Cannabis

Amphetamines

LSD

Ecstasy

Inhalants

Bulgaria

35

27

21

2

2

3

3

Croatia

30

27

22

2

1

5

14

Czech Republic

39

46

44

4

6

8

9

Denmark

27

50

23

4

1

2

8

Estonia

35

32

23

7

2

5

8

France

22

38

2

1

3

11

Greece

20

35

6

0

1

2

15

Hungary

31

21

16

3

2

3

5

Ireland

27

39

39

1

2

5

18

Italy

25

24

27

3

3

3

6

Poland

26

27

18

5

2

3

9

Portugal

18

14

15

3

2

4

8

Romania

20

18

3

0

0

1

1

Slovak Republic

32

34

27

2

2

3

9

Slovenia

27

25

28

1

1

3

15

United Kingdom

22

43

38

3

2

5

12

The Netherlands

27

45

28

1

2

4

6

a Lifetime use >40 times. Source: Adapted from Ref. 39.

a Lifetime use >40 times. Source: Adapted from Ref. 39.

medications for asthma treatment, asthma mortality has continued to increase throughout the world. For example, from the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s, there was an increase in asthma-related deaths for 5- to 34-year-olds of staggering proportions: 34% increase in Japan, 17% increase in Singapore, and 111% increase in the United States (47). The causes of this increase in morbidity and mortality are unclear, but linked to the complex interaction of such factors as local medical care practices, local environmental Issues (i.e., pollution, tobacco use, dust mites, allergens, infections), and genetics (9,46,47).

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