Causes Of Back Pain

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The main etiologies for adolescent back pain can be put into several general categories that are listed in Table 1.

Table 1 Etiologies of Adolescent Back Pain

Nonspecific back pain Mechanical Lumbar strain

Spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis

Scheuermann disease

Disk herniation

Scoliosis

Osteoporosis

Apophyseal ring fracture, sacral fracture Transitional vertebrae Spinal cord anomalies Nonaccidental trauma Idiopathic pain syndromes

Fibromyalgia Rheumatic

Enthesitis related arthritis Psoriatic arthritis

Systemic lupus erythematosus, mixed connective tissue disease, dermatomyositis Vascular

Hemoglobinopathies (i.e., sickle cell disease, thalassemia) Arteriovenous malformation Spinal infarct Infectious Osteomyelitis Discitis

Epidural abscess Tumor

Benign bone tumors and tumor-like lesions Malignant bone tumors: primary and metastatic Spinal cord tumors Psychological

Psychogenic/conversion reaction Referred pain Hip

Abdominal (i.e., pyelonephritis, urinary tract infection, pancreatitis, appendicitis)

Pelvic (i.e., ovarian cyst, perineural cyst, hematocolpos/imperforate hymen) Thoracic (i.e., pneumonia, pleuritis)

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