William Woolverton

Environmental Influences on Drug Effects More than any other discipline, the field of behavioral PHARMACOLOGY has attempted to understand the influence of nonpharmacological, or environmental, factors on the effects of abused drugs. Since the classic demonstration by Dews (1955, 1958) showing that the effects of pentobarbital and Methamphetamine depend on the manner in which behavior is controlled by the schedule of REINFORCEMENT, researchers have been interested in various environmental influences on the effects of drugs. Some of these effects are described elsewhere in this encyclopedia (and see Barrett, 1987, for a more detailed review). This article reviews additional influences to illustrate the overwhelming conclusion that the effects of a drug depend on complex environmental variables that may override the typical pharmacological effects of a compound. Indeed, the evidence for environmental influences on drug action is so compelling that when the effects of abused drugs are characterized, ''susceptible to environmental modulation'' should be a salient distinguishing description along with physiological features.

Drug Addiction Report

Drug Addiction Report

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