Use During Pregnancy

Psychoactive drugs used during PREGNANCY affect the developing fetus. Prenatal exposure, particularly to alcohol but possibly to Cannabis, or stimulants has been associated with cognitive impairments detectable early in the child's life and eventually resulting in developmental problems and school, social, and occupational difficulties.

(SEE ALSO: Imaging Techniques)


Martin, P. R., & Hubbard, J. R. (2000). Substance abuse and related disorders. Current Diagnosis and Treatment in Psychiatry. Ebert, M. H., Loosen, P. T., Nurcombe, B., eds., McGraw-Hill, 233-259 Martin, P. R., Lovinger, D. M., Breese, G. R. (1995). Alcohol and other abused substances. Principles of Pharmacology: Basic Concepts and Clinical Applications. Munson, P., and Mueller, R. A., eds. New York: Chapman & Hall, 417-452.

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