As of the mid-1990s, little information is available about the treatment of amphetamine abusers, and no reports of successful pharmacological interventions exist in the treatment literature. As with cocaine abuse, the most promising non-pharmacological approaches include behavioral therapy, RELAPSE PREVENTION, rehabilitation (e.g., vocational, educational, and social-skills training), and supportive psychotherapy. Unlike cocaine, however, minimal clinical trials with potential treatment medications for amphetamine abuse have been carried out. The few that have been attempted report no success in reducing a return to amphetamine use.

(SEE ALSO: Amphetamine Epidemics; Pharmacokinetics; Treatment)


Angrist, B., & Sudilovsky, A. (1978). Central nervous system stimulants: Historical aspects and clinical effects. In L. L. Iversen, S. D. Iverson, & S. H. Snyder

(Eds.), Handbook of psychopharmacology. New York: Plenum.

Griffith, J. D., et al. (1970). E. Costa and S. Garattini (Eds.), Amphetamines and related compounds. New York: Raven Press.

Grilly, D. M. (1989). Drugs and human behavior. Needham, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Kalant, O. J. (1973). The amphetamines: Toxicity and addiction. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Laties, V. G., & Weiss, B. (1981). Federation proceedings, 40, 2689-2692.

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