The following are generally inadequate for the treatment of youth with CD: individual psychotherapy, behavior modification, group counseling, family therapy, milieu therapy, and immersion in a long-term therapeutic community. The most promising approaches emphasize training parents in the skills necessary to promote normal socialization in their children, accompanied by training children in the use of problem-solving strategies (Kazdin et al., 1987). The complexity and severity of CD-associated problems dictate the need for multimodal treatment. Primary consideration should be given to containment and limit setting—which create the conditions for treatment, to provide safety, and to delineate a comprehensive program of intervention encompassing behavioral and social-skill building, family therapy, and educational assistance.

(SEE ALSO: Adolescents and Drug Use; Crime and Drugs; Families and Drug Use; Family Violence and Substance Abuse; Vulnerability As Cause of Substance Abuse)


American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-4th ed. (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: Author. Kazdin, A. E., ET al. (1987). Effects of parent management training and problem-solving skills combined in the treatment of antisocial child behavior. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26, 416-424. LOEBER, R. (1991). Antisocial behavior: More enduring than changeable? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 393-397.

Rutter, M. (1984). Psychopathology and development. I. Childhood antecedents of adult psychiatric disorder. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 18, 225-234.

Ada C. Mezzich Ralph E. Tarter Revised by Mary Carvlin

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