The following are generally inadequate for the treatment of youth with CD: individual psychotherapy, behavior modification, group counseling, family therapy, milieu therapy, and immersion in a long-term therapeutic community. The most promising approaches emphasize training parents in the skills necessary to promote normal socialization in their children, accompanied by training children in the use of problem-solving strategies (Kazdin et al., 1987). The complexity and severity of CD-associated problems dictate the need for multimodal treatment. Primary consideration should be given to containment and limit setting—which create the conditions for treatment, to provide safety, and to delineate a comprehensive program of intervention encompassing behavioral and social-skill building, family therapy, and educational assistance.

(SEE ALSO: Adolescents and Drug Use; Crime and Drugs; Families and Drug Use; Family Violence and Substance Abuse; Vulnerability As Cause of Substance Abuse)


American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders-4th ed. (DSM-IV). Washington, DC: Author. Kazdin, A. E., ET al. (1987). Effects of parent management training and problem-solving skills combined in the treatment of antisocial child behavior. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 26, 416-424. LOEBER, R. (1991). Antisocial behavior: More enduring than changeable? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 393-397.

Rutter, M. (1984). Psychopathology and development. I. Childhood antecedents of adult psychiatric disorder. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 18, 225-234.

Ada C. Mezzich Ralph E. Tarter Revised by Mary Carvlin

Beat The Battle With The Bottle

Beat The Battle With The Bottle

Alcoholism is something that can't be formed in easy terms. Alcoholism as a whole refers to the circumstance whereby there's an obsession in man to keep ingesting beverages with alcohol content which is injurious to health. The circumstance of alcoholism doesn't let the person addicted have any command over ingestion despite being cognizant of the damaging consequences ensuing from it.

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