The studies described here indicate the powerful influences that exist in the environment that can alter the course of the effects of abused drugs. Such findings illustrate the need to examine those influences and the manner in which they occur, although it is often tempting to attribute all changes in behavior to the abused drug. Consequences that are immediate, as in the existing environment, or remote, such as in the individual's past experience, help determine the acute effects of drugs and may also contribute to long-term abuse and persistent drug use.

(SEE ALSO: Adjunctive Drug Taking; Causes of Substance Abuse; Reward Pathways and Drugs; Tolerance and Physical Dependence)


Barrett, J. E. (1987). Nonpharmacological factors determining the behavioral effects of drugs. In H. Y. Meltzer (Ed.), Psychopharmacology: The third generation ofprogress. New York: Raven Press. Dews, P. B. (1958). Studies on behavior: IV. Stimulant actions of methamphetamine. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 122, 137-147. Dews, P. B. (1955). Studies on behavior: I. Differential sensitivity to pentobarbital of pecking performance in pigeons depending on the schedule of reward. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 113, 393-401.

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