Second Period 19501966

After World War II, the prevalence of Heroin addiction in the United States markedly increased. Heroin replaced morphine as the primary narcotic used. Annual admissions to the two hospitals doubled from the 1940s to the 1950s. The prewar addicts differed from their postwar counterparts. More of the postwar addicts came from large cities, and more came from minority groups (mainly black and Hispanic).

While residence in a drug-free environment continued as a major feature, new psychosocial treatments were made a part of the program. Psychoan-alytically oriented Psychotherapy was offered, but few patients seemed willing or able to engage in this form of therapy. Group therapy, however, seemed more acceptable, and most patients participated in it to some extent. Influenced by new concepts of the therapeutic community, staff members tried to improve the quality of the patients' psychosocial experience in the hospital.

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