Robert T Angarola Alan Minsk

SHOCK INCARCERATION AND BOOTCAMP PRISONS Shock incarceration programs, frequently called boot-camp prisons, are short-term prison programs run like military basic training for young offenders—adult and youthful felons (MacKenzie & Parent, 1992). Boot-camp prisons were first established in Georgia and Oklahoma in 1983 and since then all states and many counties have adopted this type of program. Bootcamp prisons have proved controversial over time, as critics argue that this type of regimen does not reduce recidivism (the tendency to return to crime). In the late 1990s, allegations of misconduct and abuse by boot-camp prison staff members against their juvenile inmates have led to criminal investigations and the closing of facilities. Nevertheless, this type of ''tough love'' approach remains a popular option for correctional officials.

Those sentenced to boot-camp prisons are required to arise early each day to participate in a rigorous schedule of physical training, military drill and ceremony, and hard labor. While they are in the boot camp, participants are separated from other prisoners. They are allowed few personal possessions, no televisions, and infrequent visits from relatives on the outside.

The correctional officers in the programs are referred to as drill instructors and are responsible for seeing that the inmates obey the rules and participate in all activities. When speaking to staff, inmates must refer to themselves as ''this inmate'' and they must proceed and follow each sentence with sir or madam as in ''Sir, yes, sir.'' Disobedience is punished immediately using summary punishments, frequently in the form of some additional physical activity, such as pushups or situps. More serious rule violations may result in dismissal from the program.

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