Principal Drugproducing Countries

Coca/Cocaine. As of the early 1990s, all the cocaine, about 30 percent of the heroin, and a significant amount of marijuana entering the United States is produced in the Western Hemisphere—in Mexico, Central, and South America. They are smuggled in through the southern borders of the United States. All of the cocaine consumed in

TABLE 2

Illicit Opium Estimates

CULTIVATION

TABLE 2

Illicit Opium Estimates

Net

Net

Major Source

Cultivation

Cultivation

Country

(acres)

(hectares)

Burma

1990

370,747

150,100

1991

395,200

160,000

1991

8,484 7,410

3,435 3,000

Laos

1990

75,533

30,580

1991

73,174

29,625

1991

13,482 9,300

5,450 3,765

1991

2,087 2,828

845 1,145

Colombia

1990

Unknown

Unknown

1991

2,865

1,160

1991

30,566 42,459

12,375 17,190

Pakistan

1990

20,266

8,205

1991

19,834

8,030

1991

7,904 8,398

3,200 3,400

Iran

1990

Unknown

Unknown

1991

Unknown

Major Source

Production

Production

Country

(tons)

(metric tons)

Burma

1990

2,475

2,250

1991

2,585

2,350

Thailand

1990

44

40

1991

39

35

Laos

1990

303

275

1991

292

265

1991

45

62 41

1991

14 19

13 17

1991

Unknown 30

Unknown 27

1991

457 627

415* 570**

1991

182 198

165 180

1991

35 37

32 34

Iran

1990

330

300

1991

330

300

Total:

1990 =

4,202 tons (3,819 metric tons)

1991 =

3,908 tons (3,552 metric tons)

note: Opium generally converts to heroin hydrochloride at ratio of 10:1. Point estimates cited above reflect a mathematical mean point estimate and are not intended to imply a degree of accuracy or certitude which cannot be obtained due to the nature of illicit drug cultivation and production.

*The U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency believes that multi-cropping and the use of fertilizers in Afghanistan renders the 1990 estimate of 457 tons (415 metric tons) to the lower end of a potentially higher production range in Afghanistan. **The U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency believes that higher yields may exist in Afghanistan and that production could potentially be above 990 tons (900 metric tons.) source: International Narcotics Control Strategy Report 1992.

the world is grown and processed in the Andean countries of Peru, Bolivia, Ecuador, and Colombia. Some 60 percent of COCA PLANTS (Eryroxylon coca) are cultivated in Peru, about 15 percent in Colombia, and about 25 percent in Bolivia. Peru. Traditional legal cultivation of coca is licensed for cultivation in Cuzco, Peru, but the majority of Peru's illicit crop comes from the Upper Huallaga Valley (UHV), which includes portions of Huanuco, San Martin, and Ucayali departments. Other illicit cultivation occurs in La Convencion and Lares valleys in Cuzco and in the Ayachucho department. Much of the coca leaf is processed into COCA Paste and cocaine base in crude maceration

(steeping) pits positioned near cultivation sites. Clandestine labs then process the paste into base. Normally the base is then shipped to hydrochloride (HCl) laboratories in Colombia, although cocaine HCl production in Peru is rising. Reportedly, traffickers have been moving their laboratories from isolated jungle sites nearer to towns, where corrupt officials can offer protection. The chemicals (kerosene, lime, ether, acetone, hydrochloride acid) needed to process coca leaves into paste, base, and hydrochloride are diverted from legitimate chemical shipments that reach Peru by sea.

Although the Colombian traffickers control most of the cultivation and the processing of coca into paste and base in Peru, some 20 Peruvian trafficking organizations have also been identified. By early 1991, self-limiting by coca growers increased the price for coca derivatives in the UHV; this was largely because of Sendero Luminoso (SL— Shining Path), Maoist political insurgents, who demanded a greater share of the cocaine-base profits. The SL extended their area of influence; charged a tax on coca leaf, paste, and base; and attempted to set prices among the Colombian traffickers, growers, and lab operators—therefore, the prices for coca products varied widely in 1990, showing an average 100 percent increase.

The majority of cocaine base is moved from UHV staging areas by air and by river to Colombia for conversion to cocaine HCl. Drug-control efforts in Peru have been ineffective; violence, political factions, rivalry between the Peruvian police and military, and widespread corruption in a severely depressed economy have contributed to Peru's lack of effectiveness.

Bolivia. By the early 1990s, almost 75 percent of illicit coca was grown in the Chapare, Carrasco, and Arani provinces, in Cochabamba department, Bolivia. Legal cultivation of some 35,000 acres (14,000 ha) occurs only in the Yungas. Smallfarm-ers and unemployed migrants cultivate the coca in the Chapare on plots that average one to two acres (less than 1 hectare). When the market price drops below their cost of production, farmers choose not to sell the leaf. Most leaf that is sold to middlemen (intermediarios) is processed in the Chapare and then refined into base or cocaine HCl in the Beni, Cochabamba, or Santa Cruz departments. Due to increased enforcement in the early 1990s, some traffickers moved their base of operations to less accessible locations, and more paste is refined into cocaine base or HCl by about 35 Bolivian trafficking organizations.

Colombian and Bolivian traffickers have integrated some operations vertically, from wholesale paste purchase through cocaine base and HCl refining and export. The U.S. government estimates that as much as 35 percent of Bolivian coca paste may be processed in Bolivia prior to export. Chemicals arrive by truck, train, and aircraft from Brazil, Chile, Argentina, and Paraguay. The base is smuggled to Colombia in private aircraft from the Beni. Increasing its law-enforcement efforts, the Bolivian government eradicated about 10 percent of the cultivation, dismantled a number of laboratories, and disrupted several major trafficking organizations (e.g., Meco Dominquez, Mario Ariaz-Morales, Martin Morales-Daczer).

Colombia. Proximity to a large cash-based U.S. marketplace, powerful criminal organizations, indigenous entrepreneurial spirit, vast tracts of uncontrollable land, and a long tradition of smuggling have made Colombia an ideal source for cocaine. The U.S. government estimated that in 1991 92,000 acres (about 37,500 ha) of the world's 526,500 acres (213,000 ha) of coca were cultivated in Colombia—mainly in the Llanos (plains) region, which encompasses almost 50 percent of eastern Colombia. There is also coca cultivation in Caqueta, Guaviare, Putumayo, and Vaupes departments, with crop expansion into Bolivar department and into south and southwest Colombia. Colombia's drug cartels are the world's leading producers of both cocaine HCL (which is sniffed or snorted) and CRACK (which is smoked).

Colombian cocaine-trafficking organizations are sophisticated and well-organized industries, which derive their strength from control of cocaine laboratories and the smuggling routes to North America. After financing the cultivation of coca plants in Bolivia and Peru, Colombian traffickers often oversee the processing of the leaves into coca paste and sometimes base, which may then be shipped to laboratories in Colombia where the traffickers refine the coca paste—first into coca base and then into cocaine HCl by the ton. Recently, Peru and Bolivia have stopped shipping some of their coca products to Colombia and have begun to refine them into cocaine HCl in laboratories near their own fields, but as of the early 1990s Colombia operates the greatest number of base and HCl labs.

Cocaine is a major threat to weakening Colombia's democratic institutions and directly or indirectly affecting everyone in the country. Colombians increasingly recognize that the violence and corruption that accompany drug trafficking are harming their economy and society. By the early 1990s, under President Cesar Gaviria, the Colombian government security forces began enforcement procedures against cocaine traffickers. The Colombian police have also eradicated virtually all marijuana cultivation in the traditional growing areas along the North Coast and Guajira peninsula. The government of Colombia consequently damaged the leadership structure of the Medellin cartel by jailing its leader, Pablo Escobar. Some feared

TABLE 3

Marijuana Production Estimates

TABLE 3

Marijuana Production Estimates

U.S. MEASURE

Net Cultivation

Net Production

Source Country

(acres)

(tons)

Mexico

1990

86,574

21,687

1991

44,250

8,553

1991

3,705 4,940

1,650 1,650

1991

3,013 2,347

908 705

Belize

1990

181

66

1991

133

54

1991

NA NA

3,850 4,950

Domestic U.S.

1990

NA

5,500-6,600

1991

NA

3,977-5,077

METRIC MEASURE

Net Cultivation

Net Production

Percentage* of Total

Source Country

(hectares)

(metric tons)

Supply

1991

35,050 17,915

19,715 7,775

42%

1991

1,500 2,000

1,500 1,500

8%

Jamaica

1990

1,220

825

3%

1991

950

841

1991

65 54

60 49

>2%

1991

NA NA

3,500 4,500

24%

1991

NA NA

5,000-6,000 3,815-4,615

22%

Summary

1990

1991

Gross Mari

33,660-34,760

19,889-20,989

juana

(tons)

(tons)

Available

Less U.S.

3,850-4,950

3,850-4,950

Seizures,**

(tons)

(tons)

Seizures

in Transit,

and Losses

Net Mari

28,710-30,910

14,939-17,139

juana

(tons)

(tons)

Available

Summary

1990

1991

Total Mari

30,600-31,600

18,080-19,080

juana

(metric tons)

(metric tons)

Available

Less U.S.

3,500-4,500

3,500-4,500

Seizures,**

(metric tons)

(metric tons)

Seizures

in Transit,

and Losses

Net Mari

26,100-28,dOO

13,580-15,580

juana

(metric tons)

(metric tons)

Available

*Percentages were rounded off and reflect midpoints of the quantity ranges in this table. For purposes of calculation and comparison, all the marijuana produced overseas was assumed to be potentially available for import to the United States.

**U.S. seizures included coastal, border and internal (not domestic eradicated sites). Seizures in transit included those on the high seas, in transit countries, from aircraft, etc. The loss factor included marijuana lost because of abandoned shipments, undistributed stockpiles and inefficient handling and transport, etc.

SOURCE: International Narcotics Control Strategy Report 1992 and the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency.

that jailing Escobar would not curtail his cocaine trafficking, but it did have a symbolic effect on the Medellin cocaine business. (Escobar was later killed after escaping from jail.)

A signatory of the 1961, 1971, and 1988 United Nations International Narcotics Control Conventions, Colombia demonstrates its political will and commitment to investigate and immobilize major cocaine traffickers and to eradicate marijuana and opium. Colombia has also created public-order courts and begun to share evidence, reform its judiciary, and track the substantial money flows into the country—requiring the banking institutions to keep records on cash transactions over $10,000.

In the realm of CROP CONTROL, despite widespread testing of various coca herbicides, the government has not begun a major coca-eradication effort; this is largely because it is not a focus of antidrug efforts—given the location of the fields in terrorist controlled land, it is dangerous for ground forces and almost impossible for air attack. Fearing a new and burgeoning heroin business, in 1992 the Colombian government agreed to spray the common garden herbicide glyphosate (Roundup) to kill the source—the opium poppy fields—after a widespread manual eradication effort in 1991. Since the mid-1980s, marijuana production continues to be minimal because of an effective herbicidal campaign.

The Colombian national police, the military, and the security forces have conducted major operations against the Medellin and Cali cocaine cartels with the assistance of U.S. technical and information support. Colombia's government has, however, paid a heavy price for its action, suffering almost 500 deaths by assassination or during enforcement operations. Colombia has also threatened to use, or has used, the tool of extradition to incarcerate or immobilize major traffickers. In late 1990, President Cesar Gaviria's offer of amnesty (a plea-bargaining opportunity for major traffickers) resulted in decreased violence throughout the country and the surrender and imprisonment of five traffickers and one terrorist, including Pablo Escobar and the three Ochoa brothers (Jorge Luis, Juan David, and Fabio).

Opium/Heroin. The opium poppy (PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM) is the source of heroin. It is grown in three principal geographic regions: Southeast ASIA, Southwest Asia, and Latin America. The Southeast Asian Golden Triangle countries of Myanmar (Burma until 1989), Laos, and Thailand in 1991 cultivated approximately 81 percent of the world's total, 488,000 acres (195,000 ha), yielding 2,500 metric tons of opium, which would yield 250 metric

Figure 1

Cocaine Distribution tons of heroin. The Golden Crescent countries of Afghanistan, Iran, and Pakistan cultivated approximately 11 percent, and the Latin American countries of Mexico, Guatemala, and Colombia (plus the Middle Eastern country of Lebanon) produced approximately 8 percent. India is the world's largest cultivator of licit opium, producing about 35,000 acres (14,000 ha) annually for the international medicinal market.

Southeast Asia's Golden Triangle: Myanmar. The largest supply of illicit opium—56 percent of U.S. availability—comes from the Golden Triangle of Southeast Asia. Fields of opium poppy are planted on hillsides that have been prepared by ancient slash-and-burn agricultural methods. Nearly 90 percent of Southeast Asian opium comes from the Union of Myanmar (Burma), where cultivation areas are largely controlled by antigovernment insurgents in the Shan state. Heavy cultivation exists east of the Salween river and in the eastern and southern parts of the Shan state, at an average elevation of 3,300 feet (1,000 m). Fields are small, averaging about an acre (0.5 ha). The climate is ideal for growing poppy. The growers depend on opium for survival, receiving subsistence prices for and selling entire stocks to the political insurgents, who use the proceeds for food, arms, and ammunition. The opium is also consumed locally by large numbers of addicts.

Most processing of opium and heroin in Southeast Asia occurs in Myanmar, with only small amounts in Thailand and Laos. The Shan United Army and the Wa insurgent groups control refineries along the Thai/Myanmar border; the Kokang, Wa and Kachin ethnic groups also operate large heroin refineries along the China/Myanmar border. Increasing amounts of heroin are smuggled via southern China to Hong Kong, south through Malaysia and Singapore, and west through India and Bangladesh.

With the overthrow of the long-standing government of Burma by a military junta in 1988—and ongoing political strife in the new Union of Myanmar—suspension of aerial opium eradication and diminished enforcement contributed to increases in opium cultivation, heroin refining, and drug trafficking. A signatory to the 1961 SINGLE Convention on Narcotic Drugs, but not to the 1972 Protocol to the Convention or the 1971 Psychotropic Substances Convention, Myanmar had acceded to the 1988 UN Convention but now disputes the validity of extradition and submission of disputes to the International Court of Justice.

Thailand. Only a small amount of land is used to grow opium in Thailand, but it remains a net importer of opium, consuming far more than it produces. Developed transportation systems make Thailand the primary transit route to the opium/ heroin world markets, shipping by air, sea, and overland. Since the mid 1800s, opium has been grown in the northern highlands by nomadic hill tribes, who are not tied to Thailand culturally, religiously or politically. opium cultivation in Thailand is illegal, so the government has sponsored both eradication and crop-substitution efforts in the north.

Thailand is a party to the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs and the 1972 Protocol to the Single Convention. In 1991, Thailand passed conspiracy and asset-forfeiture laws and a new extradition treaty with the United States; both are working on a mutual legal-assistance treaty.

Figure 2

Opium/Heroin Distribution.

Figure 2

Opium/Heroin Distribution.

Figure 3

Marijuana Distribution.

Figure 3

Marijuana Distribution.

Laos. Recent changes in the world's political order have resulted in cooperation by the Laotian government to reduce opium cultivation. Widespread reports of Lao military corruption and involvement with the traffickers, however, have limited the success. A landlocked country, Laos has been isolated and ignored by the West since 1975 when the Communist Pathet Lao seized power; opium poppies have been grown in its nine northern provinces, yielding in the early 1990s about 20 percent of Burmese production. Three crop-substitution projects have had limited success—one in Houaphanh province, one in Vientiane province, and one in Xiang Khouang province.

The Lao government does not have a mutual legal-assistance treaty or an extradition treaty with the United States, but it does have a formal memorandum of understanding and informal agreements with U.S. agencies to cooperate more fully in drug-control efforts.

China and the Golden Triangle. In its 1992 International Narcotics Control Strategy Report, the U.S. government stated that opium cultivation may be emerging as a major problem in the People's Republic of China. China has become a major narcotics transit point with its open border to Myanmar, its location adjacent to the Golden Triangle, and its excellent transportation and commu-

nication links with the trade ports of Hong Kong and Macao. Much of the heroin processed by the Kokang Chinese in the Golden Triangle travels by road through China s Yunnan, Guangxi, and Guangdong provinces to Hong Kong for overseas distribution. In 1991, Chinese law enforcement seized more drugs and investigated more cases than at any time since the Communist takeover. A spreading domestic opium consumption appears to be accompanying the increased heroin flow. The Golden Crescent: Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Iran. The Golden Crescent supplied about 21 percent of the heroin consumed in the United States in the early 1990s. In area under cultivation, the Golden Crescent countries produce almost 11 percent of the world's opium.

Pakistan. This is a producer and an important transit country for opiates and HASHISH. The Islamic government of Pakistan maintains a poppy ban in areas under its control and manages to maintain about the same production level from year to year, but cultivation has increased slightly in areas where government control is ineffective or only nominal. Cultivation is both rain fed and irrigated in the northwest and the tribal areas of Kyber, Mohmand, and Bajaur. Once the poppy is harvested, it is processed into opium and heroin in more than a 100 clandestine mobile laboratories in the Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP) bordering Afghanistan, which is controlled by armed tribes who maintain traditional cross-border connections.

Pakistan is party to the 1961 UN Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, the 1971 UN Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the 1988 UN Convention Against Illicit Traffic of Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. Yet, with widespread corruption and government inaction, Pakistan failed to enforce its counternarcotics laws in the tribal areas, raising questions about its compliance with the 1961 Convention. Pakistan's government does however cooperate with U.S. law-enforcement agencies and has responded positively to extradition requests.

Afghanistan. After Myanmar, Afghanistan is the world's second largest producer of illicit opium. Considered an effective cash crop, opium has been grown for generations in Afghanistan, in the Helmand valley and Nangahar province, and used for medicinal and culinary purposes. The opium is processed into heroin and smuggled across the bor ders of Iran through Turkey. Afghanistan's government exerts little control over production or trafficking. Drug revenues continue to finance political resistance operations against the Communist government and provide a livelihood for farmers who depend on the opium crops. Unless the government is willing and able to control opium production in the countryside, both production and domestic consumption will continue to rise. The end of Soviet occupation (1979-1989) has not brought the refugees home, but their return will affect Afghanistan's overall economy and may cause an increase in drug trafficking.

Afghanistan is a party to the 1961 Single Convention but not to the 1972 Protocol amending the Convention. It is a signatory to the 1971 Convention on Psychotropic Substances but not to the 1988 Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. Iran. Limited data exist on drug cultivation and trafficking since the Islamic Republic of Iran was established in 1979 under the Ayatallah Khomeini. Iran outlawed opium cultivation in 1980 but growth reportedly occurs in remote areas near the Pakistan and Afghanistan borders. Allegedly, laboratories process heroin from opium in the Kurdish areas of the northwest and the Baluch region in the southeast, with significant Irani and local addict populations consuming the product. The U.S. government estimated that Iran produces about 50 percent of the amount of heroin produced in Afghanistan.

Drug trafficking is increasing along the AfghanIran and Afghan-Pakistan borders. Baluch and Pashtun tribesmen from all three Golden Crescent countries smuggle drugs in addition to traditional contraband. Pakistanis and Iranis could increase poppy cultivation to help rebuild their livelihoods that were interrupted by almost twelve years of war.

Mexico. In the 1970s, Mexico began to smuggle significant amounts of heroin into the United States, replacing Turkey as the principal heroin supplier for U.S. addicts. Opium is grown and harvested twice a year—winter and spring—in Mexico's states of Sinaloa, Chihuahua, and Durango. In the 1990s, harvesting has become year round, and cultivation has expanded to include Mexico's west coast from Sinaloa to the Mexican-Guatemalan border. Supplying an estimated 23 percent of the heroin consumed in the United States, Mexican traffickers produce both traditional brown and black-tar heroin, although the predominant type smuggled into the United States is the black-tar type. Conversion from the popular ''Mexican brown'' in the 1970s to the black-tar variety is a result of traffickers using more cost-effective mobile laboratories. The mobile labs are much harder to detect and can move with the harvesters, as they go from field to field collecting the opium gum and producing the purer black tar preferred by U.S. addicts. Although the mobile labs are found near the fields, Mexican law-enforcement personnel are also finding them near towns and cities, where chemicals and security can be acquired more easily. The administration of President Carlos Salinas (1988-1994) instituted effective law enforcement, including strong measures to combat official corruption, a 40 percent increase in opium eradication, and increased cocaine interdiction.

Mexico is a signatory to the 1988 UN Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances and entered into a Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty (MLAT) with the United States in 1991.

Guatemala and Colombia. These two countries have both begun to cultivate substantial amounts of opium in the late 1980s. By 1991, in Guatemala's western provinces of San Marcos and Huehuetenango, farmers harvested approximately 4,300 acres (1,700 ha) of opium poppy, which had been cultivated in steep mountain valleys on small plots. Mexican traffickers provide the financial, technical, and agricultural support for local growers to harvest three crops per year; the opium, however, is sent to Mexico for processing into heroin. The Guatemalan government has conducted aerial herbicidal eradication with some success, destroying almost a third of the total cultivated, but farmers are relocating their fields to more remote areas. In Colombia, in 1991, over 6,000 acres (2,500 ha) of opium poppy were located in 12 of the 32 states—planted for the most part in the Cauca and Huila departments and financed and controlled by the Cali cartel. Colombia has agreed to begin herbicidal spraying from crop-duster aircraft, as it did during its mid-1980s marijuana-eradication program.

Cannabis. A by-product of the HEMP plant CANNABIS SATIVA is marijuana, which is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. Both the plant and its PSYCHOACTIVE ingredient

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are classified as Controlled Substances by the U.S. government, which estimates that Mexico supplies the majority of U.S.-consumed marijuana—perhaps as much as 63 percent. The U.S. supply accounts for another 18 percent, Colombia for 5 percent, Jamaica for 3 percent, and the remaining 11 percent comes from Belize, Laos, the Philippines, Thailand, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Brazil and Paraguay also cultivate cannabis but the majority is consumed locally or exported to neighboring South American countries.

Mexico. Although Cannabis grows throughout the country, major concentrations have been located historically in the western states of Chihuahua, Jalisco, San Luis Potosi, Sinaloa, Sonora, and Zacatecas; it is also found in Mexico's eastern state of Veracruz and, recently, in the southern states of Chiapas, Guerrero, Michoacan, and Oaxaca. Farmers grew two crops per year, traditionally, but in many areas it is grown and harvested year round. Cannabis is cultivated by subsistence farmers who often intermingle the crop with corn and beans. Traffickers have introduced irrigation and technological advances to help the farmer (campesino) avoid eradication attempts and survive cyclical droughts. The traffickers control the processing and transport of the product into the United States, smuggling the vast majority by road. Colombia. Once the primary source for marijuana consumed in the United States, in the 1990s Colombia cultivates about 5,000 acres (2,000 ha) in the traditional growing areas of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta and Serrania de Perija of northeastern Colombia. Since the dramatic success of the Colombian government's 1980s aerial-eradication program, only small amounts of low-quality cannabis have been cultivated in Colombia. Southeast Asia. This region produces a high-grade marijuana that became popular in the late 1980s; it is cultivated in Thailand and Laos, then shipped to staging points along Thailand's southern coast, to western Cambodia, and to the coast of Vietnam. Moved by ten-wheel trucks, the product is then loaded onto trawlers and taken to motherships in the Gulf of Thailand. Oceangoing vessels, yachts, and sailing boats have all been used to smuggle the product to the United States, with trans-Pacific shipments occurring in the spring and summer. U.S. traffickers usually control the commerce of marijuana into the United States, off-loading their cargo to smaller faster vessels off the U.S. coast.

Two crops a year are generally harvested in Southeast Asia, in December-January and April-May. Cultivators normally press the harvested marijuana into kilogram blocks, using a hydraulic press, and then package the blocks into aluminum foil or plastic bags that are vacuum-packed. They are hermetically sealed with heat and wrapped with nylon-reinforced plastic tape, then stored in tin canisters, burlap sacks, nylon or canvas gym bags, or boxes—all designed to maintain the product's composition, eliminate odor, and prevent mildew.

The THC content of Southeast Asian marijuana can be as high as 9 percent, whereas the average THC content for Mexican or U.S. marijuana is only 2 to 3 percent.

Jamaica. The successful eradication campaigns mounted since 1987 have decreased significantly Jamaica's importance as a supplier of Cannabis in the form of ganja. Cultivation has shifted from the accessible wetlands of west-central Jamaica to remote sites in the highlands, often in plots smaller than an acre. In the early 1990s, of 4,500 acres (1,800 ha) cultivated, almost 50 percent were reportedly eradicated. The rest was smuggled into the United States in concealed storage areas of pleasure craft, as well as in commercial fishing vessels, cargo ships, and container ships.

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