Prevention And Treatment

Because the risk factors of both childhood and adolescence come from different domains, a multi-factorial approach to drug-use prevention and treatment is essential. Moreover, since childhood drug-prone personality characteristics and adverse childhood experiences seem to determine adolescent risks for drug use, logic and social responsibility dictate that one intervene early in the develop-

ment of a child at risk. Where needed or warranted, early intervention may facilitate the development of later drug-resistant personality traits—a positive parent-child bond and association with non-deviant peers—and, consequently, the result should be lower drug use in the adolescent.

As children grow up, there are also several later points and distinct psychological domains at which it is possible to ameliorate drug use. During adolescence, for example, a decrease in the risk factors that relate to personality, family, or peers may also result in less to no drug use.

(SEE ALSO: Child Abuse and Drugs; Conduct Disorders; Coping and Drug Use; Families and Drug Use; Family Violence and Substance Abuse; Poverty and Drug Use)


Block, J., Block, J. H., & Keyes, S. (1988). Longitudinally foretelling drug usage in adolescence: Early childhood personality and environmental precursors. Child Development, 59, 336-355. Brook, J. S., Whiteman, M., & Finch, S. (1992). Childhood aggression, adolescent delinquency and drug use: A longitudinal study. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 153(4), 369-383. Brook, J. S., ET AL. (1992). African-American and Puerto Rican drug use: Personality, familial, and other environmental risk factors. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 118 (4), 417-438. COHEN, P., COHEN, J., & BROOK, J. S. (1993). An epide-miological study of disorders in late childhood and adolescence—II. Persistence of disorders. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 34 (6), 869-877. Loeber, R. T. (1991). Antisocial behavior: More enduring than changeable? Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30,393-397. McCoRD, J. (1981). Alcoholism and criminality. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 42, 739-748. SHEDLER, J., & Block, J. (1990). Adolescent drug use and psychological health: A longitudinal inquiry. American Psychologist, 45, 612-630.

Drug Addiction

Drug Addiction

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