Lead to Tolerance and Physical Dependence

and abrupt cessation of daily ingestion can result in WITHDRAWAL symptoms that are quite similar to those seen in barbiturate withdrawal. Fatal convulsions have resulted from sudden withdrawal. Fatal overdoses can occur when the drug is used alone, but especially when it is mixed with ethanol (ALCOHOL) and/or barbiturates. Because it was so commonly abused in the United States, the drug was shifted to Schedule I of the CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES ACT in the 1980s. Thus, it can no longer be prescribed and its nonmedical use is subject to severe criminal penalties. Although it is rarely used illicitly in the United States, it is still available in other countries and is a drug of abuse in some.

(SEE ALSO: Addiction: Concepts and Definitions)

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Harvey, S. C. (1980). Hypnotics and sedatives. In A. G. Gilman et al. (Eds.), Goodman and Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics, 6th ed. New York: Macmillan.

SCOTT E. LUKAS

METHEDRINE Methedrine was the proprietary name given METHAMPHETAMINE hydrochloride by the pharmaceutical company Burroughs Wellcome. It was sold in ampules and until 1963-1964 was readily available by prescription. Methedrine (or "meth") became one of the street names of

Figure 1

Methedrine

Figure 1

Methedrine methamphetamine during the 1960s and early 1970s when high-dose methamphetamine ("speed") was a major drug of abuse. It was a particular problem in northern California where, after the manufacturer withdrew commercially made Methedrine from the market in 1963, large quantities of black-market, illicitly synthesized methamphetamine became available for sale.

(SEE ALSO: Amphetamine Epidemics; Designer Drugs; Epidemics of Drug Abuse)

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