J

Jackson, Andrew, 814 JACS, 673, 674, 1139 Jaffe, Jerome H. on addiction, 401 on prevention, 493 SAODAP and, 818-819, 1126, 1278,

1284, 1301 Vietnam War drug use and, 1309-1310 Jails. See Prisons and jails Jamaica cannabis and, 575, 665, 1054 crop control in, 375, 665 as transit country, 1112 James, William, 358-359 James I (King of England), 872-874, 1091, 1100

Japan alcohol use in, 145 methamphetamine use in, 119, 120,

490-491, 722 Stimulants Drug Law of 1951, 119 tea use in, 143, 874 Japanese-Americans and alcohol, 254 Jargon. See Slang and jargon Java, tea use in, 874 Jefferson, Thomas, 1077 Jellinek, E. M. alcoholism theories, 355, 399, 1124 memorial fund, 671 -672 Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies, 1012-1013 Jellinek Memorial Fund, 671-672 Jesus, wine and, 79

Jewish Alcoholics, Chemically Dependent Persons and Significant Others Foundation, Inc., 673, 674, 1139 Jews, 672-675

alcohol beliefs, 1307

ancient Hebrews, 79 Jimsonweed, 675, 1017 Joanou, Philip, 839 John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur

Foundation, 450 Johns Hopkins University, 1257 Johnson, Ben, 123-124 Johnson, C. Anderson, 918-919 Johnson, Edward E., 1279 Johnson, Elaine, 1128, 1290 Johnson, Lyndon B., 133, 1124 Johnson, Vernon, 273-274 Johnston, Lloyd, 600 Join Together, 907 Joint Inter-Agency Task Forces, 442 Jones, Ernest, 549 Jones, Jim, 379 Joplin, Janis, 435

Journal of Addiction and Mental Health, 246 Journal of Addictive Diseases, 108 Journal of Community Psychology, 481 Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 1012-1013 Journal of the American Medical Association, 1155

Judges drug courts and, 432-433 prosecutors and, 445-446 Judicial Assistance Act of 1984, 217 Just Say Know: New Directions in Drug

Education (Conference), 925 ''Just Say No'' campaign, 666, 1122, 1127 Justice Assistance Act of 1984, 1273 Juvenile delinquency and substance abuse. See Adolescents and substance abuse

Kansas tobacco lawsuit, 46 Kant, Immanuel, 673 Kaposi's sarcoma, 294-295 Kava, 144-145, 677 Kaye, Judith S., 1008 Keller, Mark, 1012-1013 Kennedy, John F.

Anslinger, Harry J. and, 133 commission on drug abuse, 755 conference on substance abuse, 258-259, 287

Kennedy, Robert, 133

Ketamine, 264, 862, 1024

Khan, Inayat, 1364

Khat, 677-679, 678

Kidney diseases. See Renal disorders

Kif. See Cannabis sativa

Kirschwasser, 407-408

Kishline, Audrey, 96

Kiu (Ancient beer), 164-165

Kleber, Herbert D., 244, 1128

Kleiman, Mark, 879

Klein, Terry, 470

Klikovich, S., 644

Klonopin. See Clonazepam

Knowledge Exchange Network, 1303

Koenigstein, 549

Kola nut, 210, 281-282, 282

Kolb, Lawrence, 1276-1278

Koller, Carl, 268, 549, 875

Kool cigarettes, 1094

Koop, C. Everett, 48

Korea, 119, 145

Korean-Americans and alcohol, 254 Korsakoff's syndrome. See Wernicke-

Korsakoff syndrome Kosterlitz, Hans, 487 Kowalski, Claire, 1110

Kraepelin, Emil, 1015-1016 Kramer, John F., 936 Krogh, Egil, Jr., 1309 Kubacki, Raymond, 584 Kummelvasser, 407-408 Kumys (Beverage), 145

L-alpha-acetylmethadol, 681, 681,

804-805, 1183, 1219, 1254 L-dopa, 746, 1254 LAAM. See L-alpha-acetylmethadol Laboratory studies. See Clinical research, laboratory studies Lactation, methadone and, 807 Lager beers, 165-166 LaGuardia, Fiorello, 287 Lamivudine, 1061 Lancet, 533 Laos as opium source, 143, 144, 579-581,

660-661, 662, 1054 terrorism in, 1081 Lapses vs. relapse, 954 Lara Bonilla, Rodrigo, 285 Latency of drugs, 846 Lateral hypothalamus, 196 Latin America. See also specific countries, e.g., Mexico ancient, beer use in, 79 as cannabis source, 655-657 as cocaine source, 658, 875 coffee cultivation in, 279, 874-875 foreign policy and, 545 historical alcohol use in, 80-81 as opium source, 655-657, 660-661,

663-664 tobacco use in, 872-874 Latin Americans. See Hispanic Americans Laudanum, 255, 681-682, 682 Law enforcement. See also Drug laws community drug resistance and, 908, 909 drug policies and, 885 government agencies, 1272-1274 mandatory sentencing (See Mandatory sentencing) ONDCP and, 1299 racial profiling and, 947-949 zero tolerance and, 1371 Law Enforcement Assistance Administration,

217, 1113 LD50, 415-416, 682 Le Club des Haschschins (Hashish-Eaters

Club), 592-593 Le Patriarche, 686-687 LEAA. See Law Enforcement Assistance

Administration League of Nations

Commission of Inquiry into the Control of Opium Smoking in the Far East, 144

Opium Advisory Committee, 132, 817 WHO and, 1364 Learned tolerance. See Contingent tolerance Learning factors in substance abuse, 234-239 alcohol and, 710-711 amphetamines and, 112-113, 712 animal research on conditioning and, 996-1002 schedules of reinforcement and, 1002-1006 benzodiazepines and, 711 cocaine and, 270 in cognitive therapy, 1230

Learning factors in substance abuse— (Continued) craving and, 356 nicotine and, 786-787 operant (See Operant conditioning) psychological treatment and, 1256 community-reinforcement approach,

1258-1259 skill training, 1258 state dependent, 708-710, 1001 treatment methods and, 1192 Wikler's theory and, 1338-1339 Leary, Timothy, 691, 693 Lebanon, 660-661, 1054, 1081 LeBow, Bennett S., 1098 LeDain commission (Canada), 287-288 Lederle Corp., 1088 Ledermann, Sully, 911-912 Ledermann model, 911-913 Ledermann model of alcohol consumption,

911-913 Legal Action Center, 1337 Legalization of drugs. See Decriminalization Legislation on substance abuse. See Drug laws

Lehder, Carlos, 285 Lemoine, Paul, 533 Length of treatment. See Duration of treatment

Leo Burnett advertising agency, 1094-1095 Leptin, 793

Leukeran. See Chlorambucil Leukocytes alcohol and, 299-301 allergic responses and, 104, 105 cannabis and, 303 cocaine and, 301 HIV/AIDS and, 1060-1061 morphine and, 303 tobacco and, 302 Levo-alpha-acetylmethadol. See L-alpha-

acetylmethadol Levomethadyl acetate. See L-alpha-

acetylmethadol Levorphanol, 832 Lewin, Louis, 157 Lewis, Dio, 1361

Lexington, Kentucky, Public Health Service Hospital. See U.S. Public Health Service Hospitals Libertarian views. See Civil rights Librium. See Chlordiazepoxide Licensed Beverage Information Council, 409 Liebig, Justus von, 255 The Life and Work of Sigmund Freud, 549 Life skills training. See Skills training LifeRing Secular Recovery, 1048 Liggett & Myers

Chesterfield cigarettes, 1094 generic cigarettes, 1097 tobacco antitrust litigation and, 1094 Lightner, Candy, 744, 744 Liji, 145

Limbic system, 193, 687-689. See also Brain structures mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system, 19.5

reinforcement and, 194-195, 196 stimulants and, 194 structure of, 688 Lime. See Calcium hydroxide Lincoln Hospital (New York), 1223 Lindesmith Center. See Drug Policy

Foundation Lindstrom, Lars, 403-404 Lipid-soluble drugs, 446, 851-852, 852

Lipids and alcohol, 76 Liqueurs, 407-408 Liquor. See Alcohol Lissner, Arlene, 1138 Lithium for aggression, 227 with alcohol, 59 for alcoholism, 1156, 1251 for bipolar disorder, 136 Lithonate. See Lithium Little Cigar Act of 1973, 50, 1092 Littrell, Walter, 1137 Liver disorders, 309, 322-323, 1101. See also specific disorders, e.g., Cirrhosis in African Americans, 507 -508 alcohol and, 72, 219-220, 304, 304-312, 309

anabolic steroid-related, 126 from drug abuse, 312-314 elderly drug metabolism and, 55-56 nutritional complications and, 338 opioid-related, 806 Liver enzymes alcohol and, 309, 310, 859-861 drug interactions and, 437 hepatitis B and, 313 pharmacotherapy and, 312 Lobbying distilled spirits industry and, 409, 410 tobacco industry and, 1098-1099 Lobeline, 1089 Locus coeruleus opioids and, 262

polydrug detoxification and, 1196 Lofexidine, 1182

Lognormal distribution of alcohol. See

Ledermann model Lois W. (Al-Anon), 64 Long-term vs. short-term treatment,

1243-1244 Longitudinal studies. See also Epidemiology on adolescents, 35 on risk factors, 1317 Looking Backward, 1119 Lophophra williamsii. See Peyote Lorazepam, 173

abuse liability of, 177 for anxiety, 178 metabolism of, 172 methadone with, 177 for nausea, 705 rebound anxiety from, 180 withdrawal from, 180-181 Los Angeles, California, and gangs,

566-567, 568-569, 571-572 Losing phase of gambling addiction,

562-563 Lotsof, Howard, 622 Louisiana, boot-camp programs in,

1031-1032 Lowery, Christine T., 505-506 LSD. See Lysergic acid diethylamide LSR. See LifeRing Secular Recovery Lucky Strike cigarettes, 1094 ''Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds,'' 378 Ludes. See Methaqualone Ludlow, Fitz Hugh, 593 Luminal. See Phenobarbital Lung disorders cannabis-related, 705

injection route of administration and, 344

opioid-related, 806

THC and, 1084

tobacco-related, 1100-1101, 1102 immunological factors, 301 -302

Luteinizing hormone alcohol and, 295 opioids and, 296 Lymphatic disorders. See Immune disorders Lymphocytes. See Leukocytes Lysergic acid diethylamide, 689-695, 1024 aggression and, 53 carcinogenicity of, 220 chemical structure of, 589, 690 as club drug, 264 vs. dimethyltryptamine, 397-398 vs. DOM, 414 epidemics, 491

hallucinogenic plants and, 586-587 immunoassays for, 627 vs. morning glory seeds, 741 -742 vs. psilocybin, 877, 937-938 serotonin and, 1025

MA (Marijuana Anonymous). See Marijuana

Anonymous MA (Methadone Anonymous). See

Methadone Anonymous MacAndrew scale, 739-740 MacDonald, Donald Ian, 837, 1280, 1285 Mactas, David, 1292

MADD. See Mothers Against Drunk Driving

Mafia. See Organized crime

Magic mushroom. See Psilocybin

Magnetic resonance imaging, 624

The Mahabharata, 560

Mahareshi Mohesh Yogi, 378

Maine drinking age laws and, 734-735 Law of 1851, 1078-1079 Maintenance treatment of addiction for opioids, 1122-1123 Major tranquilizers, withdrawal from, 1353 Malaria, 343-344 Malaysia and betel nut use, 183 Malcolm X, 791

Malnutrition and alcohol, 337-339 Malt, 165-166 Managed care outpatient vs. inpatient care, 1249-1250 treatment policy and, 1129-1130 Manatt, Marsha. See Schuchard, Marsha Keith

Mandatory sentencing, 697-700 Anslinger, Harry J. and, 132, 817 prison population and, 926-927 Rockefeller drug laws, 783, 1007-1008 Manic-depression. See Bipolar disorder Mann, Marty, 759

Manual eradication of crops, 374, 375

MAOI. See Monoamine oxidase inhibitors

Marathon House, 1135

Marihuana: A Signal of Misunderstanding,

288, 700-701, 758 Marihuana Commission. See National

Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, 131-132, 349 Marijuana, 702-707, 703. See also

Cannabis sativa Marijuana Anonymous, 1187 Marijuana Check-Up, 1187 The Marijuana Problem in the City of New York: Sociological, Medical, Psychological and Pharmacological Studies (LaGuardia report), 287 Marinol. See Dronabinol

Marion-Merrell Dow Corp., 1088 Marital therapy behavioral approaches, 1226 as group therapy, 1240-1241 Markers (Immunoassays), 626-627, 628 Marketing. See Advertising Marlboro cigarettes, 47, 1094-1095,

1097-1098 Marplan. See Isocarboxazid Marriage. See also Families alcohol-related aggression and, 525-529 alcoholism treatment and, 1148 Martinez, Bob, 1281, 1286, 1297-1298 Martinez, Julio, 1138 Marvin Burt Associates, 730-731 Maryland

Oxford House, 1136-1137 Mass spectrometry, 457 Massachusetts

Hospital for Dipsomaniacs and Inebriates, 1120-1121 inebriate asylums and, 1118 Norfolk State Hospital, 1120-1121 Worcester State Hospital, 1122 MAST. See Michigan Alcohol Screening Test Matching. See Patient Mate, 210

Maternal drug use. See Pregnancy Mathias, Charles, 837 Maupin, Armistead, 378 Mayahuel (Aztec deity), 77-78 Mayan civilization chocolate use in, 255-256 tobacco use in, 872-874 McCaffrey, Barry R., 477, 1128-1129, 1297-1298, 1299 ONDCP and, 1281 McCoy, Bill, 936 McDonnell Douglas Corp., 486 McNair, Douglas, 981-982 McNeil Corp., 1088 MDA

chemical structure of, 590, 707 as designer drug, 384 as stimulant-hallucinogen, 589-590 WHO and, 1366 MDEA, 384

MDMA, 263-264, 384, 707-708, 708 chemical structure of, 590, 707 Controlled Substances Act of 1970 and, 352

in high schools, 602-603, 604-605 memory and, 1025

as stimulant-hallucinogen, 589-590, 1024 Mecamylamine, as nicotine blockade, 1205 Medellin drug cartel, 284, 285-286, 658-660

Media and prevention movements, 839-840, 906

Median effective dose. See ED50 Median lethal dose. See LD50 Medicaid, 484, 1115-1116 Medical complications, 314-325, 881. See also specific complications, e.g., Cardiovascular disorders Medical professionals. See Health care professionals Medicare, 484, 1116 Medications over-the-counter (See Over-the-counter drugs) for substance abuse (See Pharmacotherapy) Megavitamins. See Vitamins Melanesia and kava use, 144-145 Melanoctye-stimulating hormone, 295-296

Mellanby effect, 26 Meloxicam, 831 Melphalan, 220 Memory, 710-713 alcohol and, 292-293, 319, 332-334 alcohol pharmacotherapy and, 1155 benzodiazepines and, 1020-1021 serotonin uptake inhibitors and, 1027 state dependent learning and, 708-710 stimulants and, 293 Men antisocial personality disorder and, 138 Canadian substance abuse, 218 elderly, and alcohol, 57 family violence and, 521-522 homelessness and, 613-615 hypogonadism and, 320-321 vulnerability in, 1319-1322, 1323 Mendocino State Hospital (California), 1122 Menstrual cycle, 296, 297 Mental disorders, 325-331. See also specific disorders, e.g., Obsessive ADHD and, 155-156 aggression and, 53

alcohol pharmacotherapy and, 1155-1156 cannabis and, 704-705 child abuse and, 249-250 cocaine and, 1255 excessive behaviors and, 822-823 family violence and, 522, 525-526, 528 genetic vulnerability and, 233 hallucinations and, 586 homelessness and, 615-616, 891 methadone treatment and, 720 MMPI and, 739-740 serotonin uptake inhibitors and, 1027 substance abuse and, 320, 327-330 tobacco and, 1102-1103 WHO on, 654 Mental hygiene movement, 1120-1121 MEOS. See Microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system Meperidine, 713-714

chemical structure of, 713 convulsions from, 806 as designer drug template, 384 for pain, 832 WHO and, 1366 Mephenytoin polymorphism, 447 Mephobarbital, 160 Meprobamate, 59, 714, 714 Meprospan. See Meprobamate Mering, Joseph von, 159 Merrell Dow Co., 43 Mescal. See Peyote Mescaline, 714-715, 876 chemical structure of, 590, 690, 714 as hallucinogen, 586-587, 690-691,

1023-1024 vs. peyote, 845-846 Mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system,

194-195, 195 Mesopotamia. See Iran Metabolic tolerance, 25 Metabolism. See Drug metabolism Metcalf-Volker Narcotic Addict Commitment

Act of 1962 (New York), 782 Methadone, 715-716

benzodiazepines with, 177 chemical structure of, 715 development of, 1181 endocrine disorders and, 296 history of treatment and, 1125 HIV and, 1062

vs. l-alpha-acetylmethadol, 681 myths about, 749

neonatal withdrawal and, 538-540 for pain, 832

during pregnancy, 807, 893-897, 899 testosterone and, 296 thyroxine and, 298 TOPS study and, 1132-1133 treatment with (See Methadone maintenance programs) Methadone Anonymous, 1178 Methadone maintenance programs, 716-722, 718 British treatment system and, 201 -204, 598

for cocaine polydrug addiction,

1170-1171 for heroin addiction, 804, 1182, 1183,

1253-1254 Netherlands treatment and, 769-770 for opioid addiction, 436-437, 811,

818-819, 969, 1219-1220 outpatient, 1216-1217 Methadyl acetate. See L-alpha-

acetylmethadol Methamphetamines, 722-723 chemical structure of, 722 as club drug, 264 crime and, 368

epidemics of, 110, 115-122, 117, 118,

120, 489, 490-491 freebasing of, 546-548 during pregnancy, 893-897 seizures of, 117 serotonin and, 226-227 World War II usage, 110 Methanol, 723, 1363 Methaqualone, 723-724, 724, 1366 Metharbital, 160 Methedrine, 724, 724. See also

Methamphetamines Methohexital, 161 Methyl alcohol. See Methanol Methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxylate, 174 1-methyl, 4-phenyl, 1, 2, 3, 6-

tetrahydropyridine. See MPTP 1-methyl, 4-propionoxy, 4-phenylpyridine.

See MPPP Methylenedioxyamphetamine. See MDA Methylenedioxyethamphetamine. See MDEA Methylenedioxymethamphetamine. See

MDMA Methylphenidate, 724-725 for ADHD, 156, 329 for cocaine addiction, 271, 1170 Methylxanthines caffeine, 209-210, 214-215 theobromine, 1085 Metoclopramide, 705 Metronidazole, 59, 411, 1252 Mexican Americans. See Hispanic Americans Mexican mushroom. See Psilocybin Mexico alcohol use in, 77-78, 80 chocolate use in, 255-256 crop control in, 372, 375, 664 as drug source, 725-728, 727, 1054 amphetamines, 117 cannabis, 373, 655-657, 664 cocaine, 666

opium, 655-657, 660-661, 663-664, 665-666 Operation Intercept and, 794-796 terrorism in, 1081-1082 tobacco use in, 872-874 as transit country, 1112 Miami, Florida, drug court, 431

Michaelis-Menten kinetics model, 857, 857-858

Michigan counselor certification in, 933-934 gangs in, 567, 568, 571-572 Michigan Alcohol Screening Test, 472, 728-729

as model for Drug Abuse Screening Test, 147

Michigan Department of State Police v. Sitz

(1990), 472 Mickey Finn (Drink)

chloral hydrate used in, 255 date rape and, 1009 drug interactions and, 439 Micronesia and kava use, 144-145 Microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system, 306, 860-861

Microtubules (Neurons), 773-774, 776 Middle Ages alcohol use in, 79-80 opium use in, 813 Middle East cannabis use in, 221, 377, 592 coffee cultivation in, 874-875 crop control in, 372 opium and, 143, 665-666, 813-814, 821, 876

Military-style prisons. See Boot-camp prisons Military (U.S.), 729-734, 731, 732. See also names of specific wars, e.g., Vietnam War amphetamines and, 110 cocaine and, 265 -266 drug policies and, 634-635, 1274 interdiction and, 442 Mill, John Stuart, 883 Miller Brewing Corp., 41, 166-167 Miltown. See Meprobamate Mind-altering drugs. See Hallucinogens A Mind That Found Itself, 1120 Minimal intervention. See Brief intervention Minimum drinking age laws, 734-739 high school student usage, 736, 737 MADD and, 744-745 prevention movements and, 905-906 Minnesota inebriate asylums and, 1118 Institute on Black Chemical Abuse,

1138-1139 tobacco lawsuit, 46 Minnesota Model, 1124, 1134, 1244-1246.

See also Hazelden Foundation Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory,

739-740, 803-804 Minnesota v. Carter (1998), 511 Minnick, Walter C., 1279, 1289 Minor tranquilizers. See Antianxiety agents Minorities. See Ethnicity; specific groups, e.g., African Americans Mirikitani, Jan, 504 Mississippi, tobacco lawsuit, 46 Mitchell, John, 794 Mitral neurons, 775 Mixed agonist-antagonists. See Agonist-

antagonists (Mixed) Mixto (Marijuana-coca mixture), 264-265 MMPI. See Minnesota Multiphasic

Personality Inventory Mobic. See Meloxicam Model Drug Paraphernalia Act, 685, 834 Model Penal Code, 698 Moderate drinking. See Controlled drinking Moderate Drinking: The New Option for

Problem Drinkers, 96 Moderation Management, 96

Mogadon. See Nitrazepam Mohammed (Prophet), 377 Molasses, rum from, 407 Molloy, J. Paul, 1136 Money laundering, 546, 740-741 Money Laundering Control Act of 1986, 740-741

Monitoring the Future: An Ongoing Study of the Lifestyles and Values of Youth. See High School Senior Survey Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, 136 harmine as, 157

Parkinson disease and, 746-747 withdrawal from, 1352-1353 Monoamines, 741, 1070-1071 Monocytes. See Leukocytes Monopolies, tobacco, 1094-1095 Monroe, Marilyn, 435 Mood and drugs. See Subjective effects Mood disorders, 326-327. See also specific mood disorders, e.g., Depression Moon, Keith, 435 Moonshine, 741 The Moonstone, 709 Moral views on decriminalization, 879-880, 885-886 dependence syndrome and, 403-405, 591 drug policies and, 883 needle exchange programs and, 764, 767 Prohibition and, 936, 1077-1078, 1080 Washingtonian Movement and, 1117-1118 Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 1062

Morbidity cost, of alcohol use, 932 Morning glory seeds, 586-587, 741-742, 742

Morocco and cannabis, 592, 1054 Morphine, 742-744 allergic response to, 105

as analgesic, 827-828, 828, 832 vs. buprenorphine, 206 chemical structure of, 743, 798-799, 799, 800

codeine and, 272

derivatives (See specific derivatives, e.g.,

Dihydromorphine) vs. heroin, 594-596, 876 immunological complications and, 303 isolation of, 815 memory and, 712 vs. meperidine, 713-714 vs. methadone, 715 opioid receptors and, 797 from opium, 820, 833 vs. oxycodone, 824 vs. oxymorphone, 825 rate-response relationship, 1004 Morphine Benzedrine Group Scale. See under

Addiction Research Center Morrison, Jim, 435 Mortality. See Deaths Mothers Against Drunk Driving, 7, 744,

744-746

drinking age laws and, 905-906 establishment of, 469-470 Motivation. See also Amotivational syndrome aversion therapy and, 1228 coerced treatment and, 275, 278 research issues, 984-985 Motivational enhancement therapy for alcoholism, 1142, 1148 for cocaine addiction, 1166 for heroin addiction, 1176 for marijuana addiction, 1186-1187 in operant conditioning, 1217

UKAT and, 1270 Motor cortex, 192 Motor nervous system, 193 Motor vehicle accidents alcohol-related, 8, 76, 418-420, 469, 470-471 BAC and, 455, 939, 975 costs of, 475

drinking age laws and, 734-735, 737 MADD and, 744, 745-746 drug-related, 13-14, 420-421 external social-cost method and,

1051-1052 stimulants and, 453 Motorcycle accidents. See Motor vehicle accidents Moulton, Connie, 288, 836-837 Moulton, Otto, 288, 836-837 Mouth disorders. See Oral disorders MPPP,384

MPTP, 383-384, 746, 746-747 MRI. See Magnetic resonance imaging Multi-Health Systems (Canada), 148 Multi-Opium Poppy Sensing, 727 Multidisciplinary treatment. See Multimodal treatment Multidoctoring, 54, 56, 747 Multimodal treatment for alcoholism, 1143, 1148 behavioral approaches, 1226 for cocaine addiction, 1166 for heroin addiction, 1183-1184 for polydrug addiction, 1195, 1196 for tobacco addiction, 1200, 1205-1207, 1211

Multiple drug use. See Polydrug abuse Multiple family group therapy, 1240 Murad the Cruel, 1091 Murray, Timothy, 431 Muscarine acetylcholine and, 183, 710 neurotransmission and, 780-781 toxicity of, 184 Muscimol, 543 Muscle relaxants benzodiazepines as, 172, 174-175, 179 meprobamate as, 714 Muscular disorders, 324, 807 Mustard gas, 878 Mutual aid tradition, 1117-1118,

1125-1126 Myanmar crop control in, 372, 375

as opium source, 143, 144, 579-581,

660-661, 1054 terrorism in, 1081 Myleran. See Busulfan Myristica fragrans. See Nutmeg Myristicin, 587, 791

Myths, on addiction and treatment, 748-749

N-acetyltransferase, 448

N-methyl, d-aspartic acid. See NMDA

NA. See Narcotics Anonymous

Nabilone, 705, 706

NACC. See Narcotic Addiction Control

Commission (New York) Nadelmann, Ethan, 448-449 NADH/NAD ratio, 76 Nalbuphine, 63 Nalepka, Joyce, 837 Nalmefene, 1143 Nalorex. See Naltrexone

Naloxone, 751, 1247 for alcoholism, 1154-1155, 1252 chemical structure of, 751 vs. naltrexone, 752

for opioid addiction, 436, 596, 712, 743, 1219, 1253 respiratory depression and, 802 withdrawal symptoms, 804 vs. oxymorphone, 825 Naltrexone, 752

vs. oxymorphone, 825 Naltrexone treatment, 752-754, 1154-1155, 1219, 1252 for alcoholism, 411, 970, 1142 clonidine with, 262, 970 for cocaine polydrug addiction,

1170-1171 for health professional addiction, 632 for opioid addiction, 712, 969-970, 1182, 1253

withdrawal symptoms, 805 Napa Project, 916-917 Naples Informed Parents (Florida), 837 NARA. See Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation

Act of 1966 Naranon, 1241 Narcan. See Naloxone Narcissism and codependence, 274-275 Narcissistic personality disorder, 844 Narcolepsy amphetamines for, 110-111, 385 methylphenidate for, 725 Narcoterrorism. See Terrorism and drugs Narcotherapy, 108, 109 Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act of 1966, 754-756

civil commitment programs (See Civil commitment) coerced treatment and, 1123 prison treatment and, 1131 treatment availability and, 1126 Narcotic addiction. See Opioid dependence Narcotic Addiction Control Commission

(New York), 258-259, 782 Narcotic Drugs Act of 1968 (Sweden), 1067 Narcotics, 754. See also Opioids Narcotics Anonymous, 756-757 AA as model for, 94

psychological treatment and, 1259-1260 Saturday Evening Post, The, 94 sobriety and, 1047-1048 Narcotics Control Act of 1956, 132 Narcotics farms. See U.S. Public Health

Service Hospitals Narcotics Limitation Convention of 1931,

132-133 Nardil. See Phenelzine sulfate Nasal sprays (Nicotine), 789, 1088 Nation, Carrie, 1079, 1361 National Academy of Sciences, 684-685, 834

National Academy of Television Arts and

Sciences, 906 National Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine

Alliance, 1224 National Acupuncture Detoxification

Association, 1223 National AIDS Drug Abuse Research

Demonstration Program, 649, 651 National and International Drug Law

Enforcement Strategy (Report), 1285

National Asian Pacific American Families

Against Substance Abuse, 838 National Association for Native American Children of Alcoholics, 838

National Association of Drug Court

Professionals, 433 National Association of Halfway Houses, 585 National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc., 757-758, 922-924 National Association of State Boards of

Education, 409 National Cancer Institute, 221, 1277 National Center for Health Statistics, 892 National Center for Responsible Gaming, 558

National Child Abuse and Neglect Data

System, 246 National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug

Information, 1303 National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse, 288, 758-759 on availability, 683 decriminalization and, 685, 700-702 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse and, 760 paraphernalia laws and, 833 National Commission on Mental Hygiene, 393-394

National Commission on Sports and

Substance Abuse, 245 National Committee for Education on

Alcoholism. See National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence National Committee for the Prevention of

Child Abuse, 247 National Committee on Alcoholism. See

National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence National Comorbidity Survey, 496, 498 alcohol, 498 cannabis, 498, 1185 cocaine, 499

ethnic variations in, 1325 hallucinogens, 499 inhalants, 498-499 sedative-hypnotics, 500 stimulants, 500 tobacco, 497 National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws, 132, 350, 701, 1125

National Consortium of TASC Programs, 1114

National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence, 759-760, 1124 on alcoholism, 400, 400 on dependence syndrome, 400 formation of, 102 history of treatment and, 1124 National Council on Problem Gambling, 557-558

National Crime Victimization Survey, 360, 365

National Development and Research

Institute, 426 National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, 260-261, 1172-1173 National Drug and Alcoholism Treatment

Unit Survey, 1358-1358 National Drug Control Strategy crop control and, 372, 374 drug control agencies, 1282-1283 ONDCP and, 1286, 1297, 1298-1299 substance abuse research and, 1277 National Drug Enforcement Policy Board, 1280, 1285, 1287

National Drug Policy Board, 1280, 1285-1286, 1287, 1371 National Evaluation of Substance Abuse

Treatment, 245 National Families in Action, 836, 837, 838,

924-925

National Family Partnership, 926 National Federation of Parents for a Drug-Free Youth, 288, 837, 838,

925-926

National Gambling Impact Study

Commission, 556, 558, 559-560 National Guard, 1274 National Health Council (Italy), 667-668 National Health Service (Britain), 200, 597-598

National High School Senior Survey. See

High School Senior Survey National Highway Safety Bureau. See

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Highway Traffic Safety Administration drinking age laws and, 735 drunk driving and, 469 Fatal Accident Reporting System, 470 on SADD, 1059 National Hispano/Latino Community

Prevention Network, 838 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, 422-423, 496, 498, 760-763, 1355-1356 alcohol, 497-498 cannabis, 498 cocaine, 499 employment and, 633 ethnic variations in, 1325 gender differences, 1358-1358 hallucinogens, 499 inhalants, 498

vs. military results, 732, 732-733 on prenatal substance abuse, 892 prevention movements and, 907-908 sedative-hypnotics, 500 statistics, 634 stimulants, 120, 500 tobacco, 497 on treatment, 1215 National Institute of Child Health and

Development, 1277 National Institute of Diabetes, Digestive and

Kidney Diseases, 283 National Institute of Justice, 1273 ADAM and, 141, 142, 276, 365 on Operation Weed and Seed, 908-909 National Institute of Mental Health, 1128, 1276-1278, 1277 Diagnostic Interview Schedule, 728-729 Division of Narcotics, 755 history of treatment and, 1124 TASC funding and, 217, 1113 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 945, 1292-1294 on alcohol advertising, 40 on alcohol pharmacotherapy, 1156 AMERSA and, 153 child abuse studies, 246-247 on costs of alcoholism, 475-476 history of treatment and, 1124-1125 organization chart, 1293 on patient-treatment matching, 100 purpose of, 84, 1275 reorganization of, 1128 research and, 42, 964-965, 1276-1277

National Institute on Drug Abuse, 1128, 1294-1295

acupuncture and, 1224-1225

ADAM and, 276

AMERSA and, 153

child abuse studies, 246-247, 1357

on costs of alcoholism, 475-476

CTN and, 260-261, 1172-1173

DATOS and, 426

DAWN and, 429

drug testing and, 453 -454

epidemics and, 493

formation of, 818-819, 1127

High School Senior Survey (See High

School Senior Survey) on HIV, 648

Latin-American statistics, 611 Medications Development Program, 1172 Napa Project, 916

National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (See National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) National Pregnancy and Health Survey,

892, 893-897 on nicotine gum, 1204 Ombudsman program and, 917 parents movement and, 836, 837, 838 Partnership for a Drug-Free America and,

839-840 PRISM Awards and, 906 purpose of, 1275-1276 research funding and, 964-965,

1276-1277 SAODAP and, 1302 on TASC, 217 TOPS study, 1132 tranquilizer study results, 177 treatment research and, 1172-1173,

1185-1187 WHO and, 1365 National Institutes of Health. See also specific institutes, e.g., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism on needle exchange programs, 765 reorganization of, 1128 substance abuse research and, 1276-1277 National Liberation Army (Colombia), 285, 1081

National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent

Health, 35 National Longitudinal Survey, 892 National Maternal and Health Survey, 892 National Narcotics Border Interdiction

System, 1285 National Narcotics Intelligence Consumer

Committee, 655, 1285 National Opinion Research Center, 557 National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws, 836-837, 904-905

National Parents Resource Institute. See

Parents' Resource Institute for Drug Education National Practitioner Data Bank, 630 National Pregnancy and Health Survey, 892, 893-897

National Prevention Network, 757-758 National Prohibition Act of 1920. See

Volstead Act of 1920 National Prohibition Party, 1360, 1362 National Research Council, 283, 699 National Security Council, 1274-1275,

1297, 1299 National Spit Tobacco Education Program, 1105

National Transportation Safety Board, 453, 634-635

National Treatment Agency (Britain), 200 Native Americans alcohol and, 80-81, 82

cultural considerations for, 505-506

ginseng and, 578

hallucinogenic plants and, 377-378,

586-587, 937 peyote and, 357-358, 588, 845, 876 tobacco and, 1090-1091, 1104,

1105-1106 variations among, 509 Natural killer cells. See Leukocytes Nausea, opioid-related, 743, 805. See also

Antiemetics Navy and interdiction, 442 NCADD. See National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence NCPCA. See National Committee for the

Prevention of Child Abuse NCTP. See National Consortium of TASC Programs

Needle and syringe exchange programs, 651, 763-769, 765, 1062 in Britain, 201 -204, 598-599 paraphernalia laws and, 834 TLC-DPF and, 449 Negative reinforcement, 953-954, 1109. See also Punishment schedules Nelfinavir, 1061

Neonatal apnea, caffeine for, 210, 213 Nerve cells. See Neurons Nerve gas, 878

Nervous system disorders. See Neurological disorders Netherlands, 769-771, 770 breath tests and, 187 coca paste use in, 264-265 marijuana in, 879

needle and syringe exchange programs in, 763, 764 Network therapy (UKAT), 1270 Neuroadaptation. See Tolerance Neuroleptics, 771, 1353. See also

Antipsychotics Neurological disorders, 319-320, 331-336 ADHD and, 155 alcohol-related, 319 cocaethylene-related, 267 delirium-related, 381 -382 designer drug-related, 383-385, 746, 747 elderly, alcohol and, 57 -58 FAS and, 534, 535 hallucinations and, 586, 587-588 ibogaine-related, 622 MDMA-related, 707-708 nitrous oxide-related, 644-645 opioid-related, 806 phencyclidine-related, 869-870 toluene-related, 645 in utero drug exposure and, 539, 541 Neuromodulators, 777 Neuronal network hypothesis, 196 Neurons, 191-192, 771-776, 775. See also Neurotransmitters cell membranes, 232 complexity of, 772 dopamine and, 414-415 features of, 774 glutamate and, 578-579 interconnections of, 775 synapses (See Synapses) types of, 773 Neuropeptides, 777-779, 780-781

Neuropsychopharmacological drugs,

1352-1353 Neurotransmission, 776-782, 778 Neurotransmitters, 781-782. See also specific neurotransmitters, e.g., Dopamine alcohol and, 71

antisocial personality disorder and, 138

criteria for, 778

distribution of, 194

drug preference and, 968-969

imbalance of, 249

limbic system and, 688-689

MAOI and, 1352-1353

memory and, 710, 711, 712

neuronal network hypothesis and, 196

nicotine and, 784

receptors for (See Receptors (Drug)) reinforcement and, 223, 987-988 stimulants and, 193-194, 194 types of, 777-779 Neutrophils. See Leukocytes Nevirapine, 1061

The New England Journal of Medicine, 902 New York City gangs in, 567, 569-570, 572 Medical Society on Alcoholism, 107-108 New York City Transit Authority v. Beazer

Academy of Medicine, 107-108 boot-camp programs, 1030, 1031-1032 inebriate asylums and, 1118 LaGuardia marijuana report, 287 Narcotic Addiction Control Commission,

258-259, 782 Project Return Foundation, Inc., 1138 Rockefeller drug laws, 1007-1008 triplicate prescription and, 1267-1268 New York State Civil Commitment Program, 258-259, 754-755, 782-783, 1123

New York University, Center for Medical

Fellowships in Alcoholism and Drug Abuse, 153 Newborns, addicted. See Addicted babies Newman, Paul, 906

NHSDA. See National Household Survey on

Drug Abuse NHTSA. See National Highway Traffic

Safety Administration NIAAA. See National Institute on Alcohol

Abuse and Alcoholism Nicoderm. See Patches (Nicotine) Nicorette. See Gum (Nicotine) Nicot, Jean, 872-874, 1091 Nicotiana species. See Tobacco Nicotine, 783-788, 874. See also Tobacco chemical structure of, 784 conditioning and, 1085 pharmacology of, 1101 reinforcement and, 463-464, 1202 replacement therapy (See Nicotine replacement therapy) sleep and, 1045 in smokeless tobacco, 1105 treatment for addiction to (See Tobacco addiction treatment) in utero exposure to, 542-543 withdrawal from (See Nicotine withdrawal) Nicotine polacrilex. See Gum (Nicotine) Nicotine replacement therapy, 788-790, 1087-1089, 1203-1205 comparison of methods, 1199-1200 OTC vs. prescription, 1350

weight gain and, 1107-1108 Nicotine withdrawal, 785, 1205, 1348-1351, 1349 cognitive function and, 1349 symptoms of, 392 Nicotrol. See Patches (Nicotine) NIDA. See National Institute on Drug Abuse Niemann, Albert, 268 Nightshade family jimsonweed, 675, 1017 scopolamine and atropine, 1017 tobacco (See Tobacco) Nikoban. See Lobeline NIMH-DIS. See National Institute of Mental Health

Nitrate cardiovascular drugs, 1352 Nitrazepam, 173, 178 Nitrogen mustard. See Mustard gas Nitroglycerin, 59, 1352 Nitrous oxide. See also Inhalant addiction epidemics of, 490

inhalant addiction of, 642, 644-645 Nixon, Richard M.

Anslinger, Harry J. and, 133

drug agencies and, 1289

Marihuana Commission and, 700, 701

naltrexone and, 753

NIAAA and, 1124

ODALE and, 1295

Operation Intercept and, 794

SAODAP and, 818-819, 1113, 1278,

1300, 1301 Vietnam War drug use and, 730,

1309-1310 ''War on drugs'' and, 491, 884, 1126, 1284

workplace policies and, 634 NMDA, 952 alcohol and, 233 phencyclidine and, 862 NNBIS. See National Narcotics Border

Interdiction System NNICC. See National Narcotics Intelligence

Consumer Committee No Hiding Place, 504 Noctec. See Chloral hydrate Nonamnesiac memory impairment, 711 Nonmedical detoxification, 1246-1249 Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, 1061 Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, 59,

257, 829-831 Nonsynaptic communication, 777 Norephedrine, 678, 678-679 Norepinephrine, 790-791 amphetamines and, 111, 224 chemical structure of, 590 clonidine and, 262, 263 cocaine and, 111, 224 conversion of, 223 euphoric properties of drugs and,

193-194, 196 gambling and, 563 hallucinogens and, 589-590 harmine and, 157 memory and, 712 neurotransmission and, 777-779, 780-781

Norfolk State Hospital (Massachusetts), 1120-1122 Normalization, in Netherlands, 769-770 NORML. See National Organization for the

Reform of Marijuana Laws Norpramin. See Desipramine Nortriptyline, 135-136, 1089, 1350 Norwich State Hospital (Connecticut), 1122

NSAIDS. See Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents

Nuclear Regulatory Commission, 635 Nucleoside analogues, 1061 Nucleus accumbens, 791 cocaine effects on, 226 opioids effects on, 228 reinforcement and, 194-195, 196,

688-689 stimulants and, 193-194 Nucleus (Neurons), 773-775 Nutmeg, 587, 791, 791 Nutritional complications, 336-340 alcohol and, 72-73, 75, 304, 304, 323 cocaine and, 301 pregnancy and, 895-896, 898 Nutt, Levi G., 936 N.W. Ayer advertising agency, 1094 Nystagmus and alcohol, 76-77, 940-941 Nyswander, Marie, 716, 717, 818-819, 1125

Nytol. See Diphenhydramine

Obesity, 793-794 alcohol and, 337 amphetamines for, 111, 385 anorectic agents for (See Anorectic agents) Obregon, Alvaro, 726-727 O'Brien, William B., 1135 Observational studies and behavior, 976 Obsessive-compulsive disorder, 844 excessive behaviors and, 822-823 symptoms of, 139 Occipital lobe, 192 Ochoa brothers, 286, 660 ODALE. See Office of Drug Abuse Law

Enforcement ODAP. See Office of Drug Abuse Policy Office for Substance Abuse Prevention. See Center for Substance Abuse Prevention Office for Treatment Improvement, 1128. See also Center for Substance Abuse Treatment Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement, 1295-1296. See also Drug Enforcement Agency BNDD and, 1289 strategy and, 1284 Office of Drug Abuse Policy, 1296-1297. See also Drug Policy Office border management and, 190 Congress and, 1287 EOP and, 1279, 1284-1285 Office of Drug Court Policy, 217 Office of Economic Opportunity, 1125-1126 Office of Justice Programs, 1273 Office of Management and Budget BNDD and, 1289 FDM and, 1278-1279, 1284 Office of National and International Drug

Operations and Policy, 1287 Office of National Drug Control Policy,

1297-1300

Congress and, 1287 Customs Service and, 1304-1305 EOP and, 1281, 1286 forfeiture and, 1273 formation of, 1128

substance abuse research and, 1277-1278 on TASC, 217 Office of National Narcotics Intelligence,

1289. See also Drug Enforcement Agency

Office of National Service, 1299-1300 Office of Smoking and Health, 1100-1101 Office of the Inspector General, 479-480 Oklahoma, boot-camp prison, 1028-1029 Olfactory tubercle, 193-194 OMB. See Office of Management and Budget Ombudsman program, 917-918 OMNIBUS Recommendation Act of 1981, 427

Omnibus Reconciliation Drug Act of 1987, 1054

On the Uses of Wine in Health and Disease, 336

On Liberty, 883 Ondansetron, 206, 705 ONDCP. See Office of National Drug Control Policy

tetrahydropyridine. See MPTP 1-methyl, 4-propionoxy, 4-phenylpyridine.

See MPPP 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane, 645 ONNI. See Office of National Narcotics

Intelligence Open Society Foundation, 450 Operant conditioning, 234-235, 237-239, 1217

amphetamines and, 112-113 animal research on, 979, 997-998, 1002-1006, 1003 intracranial self-stimulation and,

995-996 vs. classical, 998 cocaine and, 270 phencyclidine and, 864-865 psychological treatment and, 1256-1257 Operation Intercept, 727, 794-796 Operation PAR, Inc., 1137-1138 Operation Understanding, 759 Operation Weed and Seed, 908-909 Opiates. See Opioids

Opioid addiction treatment, 811, 969-970. See also Methadone maintenance programs heroid (See Heroin addiction treatment) pharmacological methods, 1252-1254 Opioid analgesics, 128-129, 799-800,

827-828, 830, 831, 831-832, 876 for chronic pain, 257 codeine as, 272 dihydromorphine as, 397 driving and, 14-15 heroin as, 594-595 hydromorphone as, 618 meperidine as, 713-714 methadone as, 715 morphine as, 742-743, 827-828 oxycodone as, 824 oxymorphone as, 825 phenylpiperidines as, 713, 799-800 propoxyphene as, 937 Opioid dependence, 425-426, 808-813 Opioid receptors, 467, 797, 797-798 alcohol pharmacotherapy and, 1154 codeine and, 272 drug interactions and, 436-437 dynorphin and, 474 immunological complications and, 303 location of, 227

mixed agonist-antagonists and, 63 morphine and, 742-743 naltrexone and, 262 neuronal network hypothesis and, 196 Opioid withdrawal, 228-232, 467, 752-753, 802-804 clonidine for, 261 -263

Opioid withdrawal—(Continued) pharmacotherapy for, 1252-1253 symptoms of, 392 Opioids, 227-232, 466-467, 796-801. See also specific opioids, e.g., Morphine abuse liability of, 241, 989-990 acute effects of, 316 addiction to (See Opioid dependence) aggression and, 53, 241 alcohol interactions with, 435 allergic response to, 105 as analgesics (See Opioid analgesics) animal testing of, 986 antagonists for, 1252, 1253 British use of, 1009-1010 buprenorphine and, 206 caffeine and, 210

carbohydrate metabolism and, 297 carcinogenicity of, 220 chemical structure of, 799, 800 clonidine and, 261 -263 complications from, 801 -807

neurological, 334-335 crime and, 365-367 cue-assessment studies using, 237 as designer drugs, 383 -384 drug interactions and, 436 endocrine disorders and, 296, 297, 298, 321

endogeneous (See Endogeneous opioids) enkephalins, 800 epidemics, 491 history of, 813-820 iatrogenic addiction to, 619, 620, 621-622 imaging techniques and, 625 legislative control of, 817-820 for medicinal use, 813-817 memory and, 712 narcotics term, 754 neonatal withdrawal and, 538-540 peptides of, 712, 779, 800 personality and, 842 pharmacokinetics of, 847 during pregnancy, 892-898 prescribed, for addiction in Britain, 201-204 receptors for (See Opioid receptors) reinforcement and, 689 Rolleston Committee and, 1010-1011 self-administration of, 689 subjective effects of, 983 tolerance to, 227

treatment for abuse of (See Opioid addiction treatment) Vietnam War and, 1309-1312 withdrawal from (See Opioid withdrawal) women's use of, 1356 Opium, 820-822, 833, 875-876. See also Opioids from Afghanistan, 660-661, 663, 665-666

as antidiarrheal, 681 -682, 742, 743,

835-836 Asian use and trade of, 143-144 carcinogenicity of, 220 from China, 253-254, 662-663 codeine from, 272

from Colombia, 284, 655-656, 660-661, 664

crop control of, 660 cultivation of, 373, 813 in Dover's powder, 416-417 epidemics, 490 foreign policy and, 545-546 from the Golden Crescent, 663

from the Golden Triangle, 660-663

from Guatemala, 655-656, 660-661, 664

Harrison Act and, 591-592

heroin from (See Heroin)

from India, 660-661

from Iran, 660-661, 663, 665-666

from Laos, 660-661, 662

from Latin America, 663-664

laudanum from, 681-682

from Lebanon, 660-661

in medications, 417

from Mexico, 660-661, 663-664,

665-666, 725-728 from Middle East, 665-666 from Myanmar, 660-661 from Pakistan, 660-661, 663, 665-666 plant, 821

Terry & Pellens study on, 1082-1083 from Thailand, 660-661 Opium Advisory Committee. See League of Nations, Opium Advisory Committee Opium dens, 816 The Opium Problem, 1083 Opium Wars (1839-1842), 143, 821, 876, 1009

Opportunity blocking and drunk driving, 473

Oppositional defiant disorder, 154 Oral contraception, 220, 1103 Oral disorders alcohol and, 220 betel nut mixtures and, 184 Oral Health America, 1105 Oral route of administration alcohol concentration times, 860 animal research on, 987, 993 complications from, 340-341 pharmacokinetics and, 849, 850 for THC, 1084 Oregon, decriminalization and, 701, 838 O'Reilly, Richard T., 839 Orfila Corp., 783-784 Organized crime in Colombia, 284, 658-660 financial analysis and, 443 -444 gangs and, 566 in Italy, 667

money laundering and, 546, 740-741 Prohibition and, 935 terrorism and, 1080-1082 OSAP. See Center for Substance Abuse

Prevention O'Shaughnessy, Dr., 593 Osiris (Egyptian deity), 77-78 Osmond, Humphrey, 588, 1024 Osteoporosis and alcohol, 338 OTC drugs. See Over-the-counter drugs OTI. See Office for Treatment Improvement Outpatient programs, 1216-1217 for cocaine addiction, 1159-1160 group therapy and, 1239 vs. inpatient, 1249-1250 Minnesota Model, 1244-1246 nonmethadone, 1220 TOPS study and, 1132-1133 Over-the-counter drugs, 823-824, 824 advertising and, 42, 43 for alcohol withdrawal, 1342 amphetamines, 115 caffeine in, 210, 211 Dehydroepiandrosterone, 124 elderly and, 56, 57-60, 61 Overdose, 822, 1247

alcohol-drug interactions and, 435 antidotes for, 136-137

of barbiturates, 109, 159, 162, 164

of benzodiazepines, 1021

of caffeine, 213

in children, 248

of glutethimide, 579

of heroin, 596

in Italy, 669, 670

of methanol, 723

of nicotine, 784, 1101

of opiates, 227

of phencyclidine, 866-867, 869 Overeating, 822-823

Overgeneralizing. See Abstinence violation effect

Own-price elasticity, 167-168 Oxazepam, 172, 173, 177, 178 Oxford House, 68, 90, 1136-1137 Oxidation (Drug metabolism), 446-447 Oxotremorine, 710 Oxycodone, 824, 824-825, 831-832 Oxymetholone, 123, 220 Oxymorphone, 825, 825 vs. naloxone, 751 vs. oxycodone, 824

P. Lorillard, 1094 Pacific Islands. See also Philippines alcohol use in, 81 betel nut use in, 182-183 Pagan, Carlos, 1138 Pain, 827-828. See also Chronic pain acute vs. chronic, 829 analgesics for (See Analgesics) animal research on, 977 brain stem and, 193 drugs for, 828-833, 830, 831 (See also

Analgesics) iatrogenic addiction and, 619-622 morphine for, 828 Painkillers. See Analgesics Pakistan crop control in, 375-376

as opium source, 143, 663, 665-666,

1054 tea use in, 1076 Pamelor. See Nortriptyline Panama, coca paste use in, 264-265 Panax species. See Ginseng Pancreas alcohol and, 322 glucose metabolism and, 297 Panic disorder, 139

benzodiazepines for, 174 LSD-related, 693-694 substance abuse and, 329 Papaver somniferum, 833. See also Opium Papua New Guinea, betel nut use in, 183 PAR (Parental Awareness and

Responsibility), 1137-1138 Paracelsus, 813-814 Paracrine communication, 777 Paradoxical reactions to barbiturates, 160, 164 to benzodiazepines, 175, 180 to stimulants, 242 Paraldehyde, 1019 Paranoid personality disorder, 843 Paranoid psychosis amphetamine-induced, 53, 112 cocaine-induced, 224-225, 265, 270 methamphetamine-induced, 723 methylphenidate-induced, 724-725 Paranoid state and alcohol, 293

Paraphernalia as conditioned stimuli, 237 HIV and, 648 industry, 904 for injection, 342

laws against, 833-835, 834, 836, 904, 924, 926 Paraquat, in Mexico, 725, 727 Parasitic diseases, drugs and, 835 Paregoric, 835-836 for diarrhea, 820-821 vs. laudanum, 681-682 for neonatal withdrawal symptoms, 17 The Parent Collaboration, 838 Parent movement, 836-839 Parental Awareness and Responsibility,

1137-1138 Parenteral route of administration. See

Injection route of administration

Parents as adolescent drug use factor, 33-34, 252, 517, 960

cannabis decriminalization and, 701-702 drug-exposed infants and, 539, 540, 899 prevention groups and, 288, 836-839,

884-885, 903-905 skills training for, 249-250, 251, 899 substance abuse and, 249-250, 251 treatment barriers for, 1359 Parents, Peers and Pot, 836, 837, 918 Parents' Resource Institute for Drug

Education, 288, 837, 838, 918 Parietal lobe, 192 Parkinson disease amantadine for, 106 ayahuasca for, 157

designer drug-induced, 383-384, 746, 747

Parnate. See Tranylcypromine sulfate Paroxetine, 136 Partial agonists buprenorphine as, 206 cocaine as, 224 for opioids, 797 Partial antagonists, 134-135 Partnership for a Drug-Free America,

839-840, 878, 906 Passive smoking, 1102 infants and, 542-543 social cost estimates and, 1052-1053 Pastore, Nicholas, 449 Pastrana, Andres, 286-287 Pataki, George, 1008 Patches (Nicotine), 786, 970, 1088,

1203-1205, 1255 Patent medicines. See Over-the-counter drugs

Patient Placement Criteria for the Treatment of Substance-Related Disorders, Second Edition, 108 Patient-treatment matching for alcoholism, 100-101, 1142, 1150 for polydrug addiction, 1193-1194 for tobacco addiction, 1200-1201, 1211-1212 Paul, Saint, 79

Paul Jones cigarettes, 1094-1095 Pavlov, Ivan, 412-413, 978, 979, 991, 997, 998

Paxil. See Paroxetine PCP. See Phencyclidine PCR. See Polymerase chain reaction test Pedestrian accidents and alcohol, 8 Peer counseling, for polydrug addiction, 1191-1192

Peer groups and adolescents, 33, 518, 960.

See also Adolescents and substance abuse

Peer-network therapy, for polydrug addiction, 1191 Pellens, Mildred, 1082-1083 Pemoline, 156, 840, 840 Pennsylvania

Abraxas Foundation, 1138 Philadelphia General Hospital, 1122 Pentazocine as mixed agonist-antagonist, 63 for pain, 832 WHO and, 1366 Pentobarbital, 163-164 People's Temple, 379 Peptides. See Neuropeptides Perchloroethylene, 645 Percodan. See Oxycodone Percy, Charles H., 1286-1287 Performance. See Psychomotor skills Peripheral neuropathy and alcohol, 319 Permanent Central Opium Board. See

International Narcotics Control Strategy Board Persia, ancient, and betel nut use, 183 Personal Responsibility and Work

Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, 1336-1337 Personality disorders, 843-844. See also specific personality disorders, e.g., Antisocial personality disorder in adult children of alcoholics, 37-38 aggression and, 227, 525-526, 528 in alcoholics, 28 SCID-II and, 1057 state-related, 27, 28 substance abuse and, 327-328 Personality traits of AA members, 92, 1261-1262 addictive (See Addictive personality) of codependents, 273-274 MMPI and, 739-740 of opioid addicts, 808-809 of substance abusers, 240-244, 840-843, 1324-1325 Peru. See also Inca civilization ayahuasca use in, 157 as cocaine source, 655-658, 656, 666, 1054

cocaine use in, 264, 265-266, 875 crop control in, 372-373, 376 foreign policy and, 545 terrorism in, 1082 PET scanning. See Positron emission tomography Peyote, 844-845, 845, 876 as hallucinogen, 586-587, 690-691 Native American use of, 357-358, 588, 714-715 Pfizer Corp., 43 Phagocytes. See Leukocytes Pharmaceutical industry, advertising and, 42-46

Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America, 44-46 Pharmacodynamic tolerance, 25 Pharmacodynamics, 845-846 drug interactions and, 434, 437, 438, 439 vs. pharmacokinetics, 853 Pharmacokinetic tolerance, 25 Pharmacokinetics, 846-849, 849, 849-856, 850, 852 of alcohol, 71-72, 856-861 concentration-time profiles, 860 elimination, 857

peak BAC, 859 of benzodiazepines, 1020 of calcium carbimide, 215 of cannabis, 704 clearance, 853 of CNS depressants, 848 of cocaine, 268-269 distribution, 849, 852 drug interactions and, 434, 437, 438, 439 drug testing and, 450-453, 854

elimination, 451, 452 elderly and, 55-56 of freebasing, 546-548 of hallucinogens, 849 of khat, 678-679 metabolism, 851 of methadone, 717-718 of nicotine, 1101, 1202 of opioids, 847 of phencyclidine, 862-863 of stimulants, 847 Pharmacology, 424-425, 861 of antidotes, 136-137 behavioral (See Environmental factors) of calcium carbimide, 215 of cannabis, 703, 704 of cocaine, 269

ethnic considerations and, 510

of heroin, 594

of methadone, 715

of MPTP, 746-747

of nicotine, 1101

psychological, 942-943

subjective effects measures and, 982-984

classes of drugs, 983 of tetrahydrocannabinol, 1083 Pharmacotherapy, 1218-1219, 1250-1256 for ADHD, 156 alcohol as, 336-337

for alcoholism, 1142-1143, 1150-1157, 1342

for bulimia nervosa, 206 carcinogenicity of, 220 for cocaine addiction, 1160, 1168-1171, 1254-1255, 1347 withdrawal symptoms, 1159 cross-tolerance, alcohol and, 306 elderly, alcohol and multiple drugs, 54,

56, 58-63 for heroin addiction, 1180-1184,

1253-1254 for HIV/AIDS, 1061 liver enzymes and, 312 methadone programs (See Methadone maintenance programs) naltrexone as (See Naltrexone treatment) NIAAA research on, 1293 opioids in, 813-817 for pain, 257, 828-833, 830 for polydrug addiction, 1193, 1194-1197 research issues, 967-971 for schizophrenia, 1016 withdrawal from, 1351-1355 Pharmacy Acts of 1868 (Britain), 198-199,

814-815 Phase shift reward testing, 1006 Phenanthrenes, 820 Phencyclidine, 468-469, 862-867 adverse effects of, 867-871 aggression and, 53 crime and, 368

hallucinations and, 587-588, 1024 NMDA receptors and, 952 Phenelzine sulfate, 136

Phenethylamine-type hallucinogens, 589-590, 590, 707, 715 WHO and, 1365-1366 Phenobarbital, 871 as anticonvulsant, 160, 163-164 for barbiturate withdrawal, 163 chemical structure of, 871 first use of, 159

for inflammatory disorders, 160 for neonatal withdrawal symptoms, 17 oxidation of, 447 stimulants and, 160 Phenothiazines, 59, 137 Phenylethylamine, 256 Phenylpiperidines, 713, 799-800 Phenylpropanolamine, 1108 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania cocaine treatment study, 1159-1160 General Hospital, 1122 Philip Morris Co.

Bill of Rights exhibit, 49 cigarette brands, 1094-1095 price competition and, 1097-1098 Philippines. See also Filipino Americans and alcohol betel nut use in, 183 as methamphetamine source, 119 Phobias, 139, 174 Phoenix House, 839, 1135 Physical abuse. See Child abuse; Family violence

Physical dependence, 871. See also

Addiction; Dependence syndrome on alcohol, 73 on amphetamines, 114 on anabolic steroids, 127-128 on barbiturates, 109, 162 on benzodiazepines, 175-176, 181, 1021 on betel nut mixtures, 184 on caffeine, 209, 212, 282 on codeine, 272 defined, 23-24

disease concept and, 399-402 on glutethimide, 579 on heroin, 595

iatrogenic addiction and, 620

on methaqualone, 724

on morphine, 742, 743

on nicotine, 784-785, 1348

809, 810 on phencyclidine, 864-865 tolerance and, 1109-1110 Physicians abuse of drugs, 629-633 medical students, 629 opioids, 201-204, 809 by specialty, 631 British policy and, 1009-1010 Harrison Act and, 591-592 iatrogenic addiction and (See Iatrogenic addiction) multidoctoring and, 747 opium and, 814-815 prescription of addictive drugs by in Britain, 201-204, 1011-1012 methamphetamines, 116 smoking cessation role, 1199 triplicate prescription and, 1267-1268 Physicians' Desk Reference, 42, 109 Physiological measures of craving, 356 Picrotoxin, 710, 711 Pilocarpine, 183 Pilsner lagers, 165-166 Pioneer House, 1244 Piper betle, 182-183

Piper methysticum. See Kava Pituitary gland endocrine disorders and, 295-296 stress and, 1331-1332 Placidyl. See Ethchlorvynol Plants, drugs from, 872-877, 873. See also specific plants, e.g., Coca plant hallucinogenic, 586-587 Plasma membrane (Neurons), 773, 774 Plasmodium parasites. See Malaria Plato, 79

Plea bargaining, 445 Plutarch, 165

Pneumonitis, drug-induced, 105-106 Poisons, 877-878. See also Overdose; Toxicity antidotes for, 136-137 salicylic acid as, 448 Poisons Act of 1868 (Britain), 1010 Police. See Law enforcement Policy. See also Drug laws in Britain, 201 -204, 597 dual approach and, 198-200 Rolleston report and, 1009-1012 in Italy, 668-669 in the Netherlands, 769-771 Policy (U.S.), 878-882 administrative authority and, 349-350 Anslinger, Harry J. and, 130-134 asset forfeiture and (See Asset forfeiture) CASA and, 244

civil commitment programs (See Civil commitment) crop control (See Crop control policies) decriminalization and (See

Decriminalization) on drug prohibition, 882-888 ethnic considerations in, 507-508 Executive Office of the President and,

1278-1282 financial analysis and, 443-444 foreign (See Foreign policy (U.S.)) government organization of, 1282-1288 on harm reduction perspective (See Harm reduction perspective) on international drug trafficking, 666-667 Ledermann model and, 911-913 MADD and, 744-746 Marihuana Commission and, 701 -702,

758-759 military, 634-635, 730-731 NCADD and, 759-760 ODAP and, 1296-1297 ONDCP and, 1297-1300 Operation Intercept and, 794-796 on opium, 591 -592 private-sector, 635 public-sector, 635 RID and, 961-962 on safer drug use, 888-889 SAODAP and, 1300-1302 TLC-DPF and, 448-450 on tobacco, 1098 transit countries and, 1112-1113 welfare (See Welfare policy) zero tolerance (See Zero tolerance policy) Pollin, William, 838 Polo, Marco, 182-183 Polydrug abuse, 889

abuse liability testing and, 4-5

in adolescents, 34-35

with alcohol, 38

with anabolic steroids, 127

with barbiturates, 162-163

behavioral economics and, 167-168

with benzodiazepines, 177

with club drugs, 264

with cocaine, 269, 1169, 1170-1171,

1347 crime and, 367 drug interactions, 434-437 fetal development and, 537 with inhalants, 647 with methadone, 718-719 with methaqualone, 724 NA founding and, 757 nutritional complications and, 339 with opioids, 811 simultaneous vs. concurrent, 1194 treatment for, 1189-1197 Polymerase chain reaction test, 1061 Polynesia, kava use in, 144-145 Poppy (Opium). See Opium Porter beers, 165-166 Positive Health Project, 449, 765 Positive reinforcement. See Reinforcement Positron emission tomography, 623-624 Possae Comitatus Act of 1876, 1274 Posselt, Wilhelm Heinreich, 783 Postal Service and law enforcement, 1274 Posttraumatic stress disorder, 328 Poverty, 889-892. See also Welfare as child abuse factor, 246, 249-250 homelessness and, 613-618 in Latin Americans, 610 maintenance treatment and, 1125-1126 Powell v. Texas (1968), 945 Prazepam, 172, 173 Preaddictive personality. See Addictive personality Preclinical drug testing. See Abuse liability of drugs, animal testing Predictors of substance abuse. See

Vulnerability Prednisone, 322-323, 1353-1354 Pregnancy and substance abuse, 892-900, 893-897, 1358. See also Fetal development acetaldehyde and, 307 addicted babies (See Addicted babies) as child abuse, 246-248 cocaine and, 14 -15 contingency management and, 1232 as family violence factor, 528 fertility rates of substance abusers, 247 fetal alcohol syndrome (See Fetal alcohol syndrome) HIV/AIDS and, 648, 651 methadone and, 719, 807 neurological complications and, 293 nutritional complications and, 339-340 tobacco and, 1103 treatment for, 1221 Prepared Foods, 166-167 Prescription drug abuse, 900, 900-902. See also Drug abuse advertising and, 42-46 alcohol and, 941 of amphetamines, 204 of barbiturates, 162, 204 Controlled Substances Act of 1970 and, 351

DEA and, 1272-1273 of heroin, 201-204, 598 multidoctoring and, 747 of opioids, 416, 808, 1122-1123 predictors of, 620 in Sweden, 1068

triplicate prescription and, 1267-1268 by women, 1356 Prescription Drug Marketing Act of 1987, 45

Prescription drug treatment. See

Pharmacotherapy Presidential Advisory Commission on

Narcotic and Drug Abuse, 287, 1125 NARA and, 755 ONDCP and, 1299-1300 Presidential Commission on Drunk Driving, 469-470

Presidents Leadership Group (Students), 480 Preusser Research Group, 1059 Prevalence studies. See Epidemiology Prevention, 902-903, 907, 913-924 of adolescent substance abuse, 35-36, 252 of alcoholism, 911-913 citizens' drug prevention movement,

903-908, 907 civil remedies for (See Civil remedies) community programs for, 908-910 CSAP and, 1290 DISCUS and, 409 driving drunk education, 473 education and, 477-482 family factors in, 518-519 government agencies for, 1275-1276 of HIV/AIDS, 650-651, 1062-1063 (See also Needle and syringe exchange programs) industry programs, 639-640 Ledermann model of alcohol consumption,

911-913 MADD and, 469-470, 744-746 media and, 839-840 Napa Project, 916-27 National Families in Action (See National

Families in Action) National Federation of Parents for a Drug-Free Youth, 288, 837, 838, 925-926 NCADD and, 759-760 NIAAA research on, 1293 research and, 964 RID and, 469-470, 961-962 SADD and, 469-470, 1058-1059 of suicide, 1066 of viral hepatitis, 314 Prevention, Intervention and Treatment

Coalition for Health, 925 Prevention Research Institute, 920-921 Prevention Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 34 Price elasticity and alcohol taxes, 1074 Price wars on tobacco, 1097-1098 PRIDE. See Parents' Resource Institute for

Drug Education Primary-secondary comorbidity, 326 Priming effect (Conditioning), 236 Primm, Beny J., 1128, 1291 PRISM Awards, 906 Prisons and jails, 926-928

boot-camp programs (See Boot-camp prisons) HIV/AIDS in, 929-930 nutmeg abuse in, 791 substance abuse in, 929-930 treatment in, 928-929, 1130-1132, 1221 history of, 1122-1123 therapeutic communities and, 1175 Private vs. public sector treatment,

1129-1130 Probation. See Coerced treatment Problem drinking accidents and, 9 -10 defined, 23

fetal alcohol syndrome and, 150 Proceedings for the Society for the Study and Cure of Inebriety, 18

Process addictions. See Behavioral addictions Processes of change, in addiction treatment,

930-932 Prochlorperazine, 705 Productivity alcohol effects on, 932 drug use effects on, 932-933 substance abuse effect on, 1050-1051 Professional credentialing, 630, 632,

933-934

Profile of Mood States, 176-177, 981-982,

988, 992 Progesterone and alcohol, 297 Progress for Providence, 1135 Progression of drug use. See Sequence of drug use Progressive movement, 1360 Prohibition, 83-84, 102, 398-399,

934-937, 935. See also Temperance movement

Anslinger, Harry J. and, 130-131 drinking age laws and, 734 driving drunk and, 469 of drugs (See Drug laws) temperance movement and, 1077, 1079 Project MATCH, 100-101, 1142 Project Return Foundation, Inc., 1138 Project SMART, 918-920 Prolactin alcohol and, 295, 321 cocaine and, 1168-1169 opioids and, 296 Promotion of prescription drugs. See Advertising, pharmaceutical industry and Propane, 647 Property crime alcohol and, 362 coca

Do Not Panic

Do Not Panic

This guide Don't Panic has tips and additional information on what you should do when you are experiencing an anxiety or panic attack. With so much going on in the world today with taking care of your family, working full time, dealing with office politics and other things, you could experience a serious meltdown. All of these things could at one point cause you to stress out and snap.

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