A chronological summary of drug-policy coordinating mechanism is presented here, beginning with 1971—first from the perspective of the Executive Branch, then from the perspective of Congress.

Executive Drug Policy 1971-1976. On the demand side, President Richard M. Nixon created the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) in the EOP in June 1971—to lead and coordinate all federal drug-abuse prevention activities. The first director, Dr. Jerome H. Jaffe, was given the added title of Consultant to the President for Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs. SAODAP then monitored the annual budget process and prepared budget analyses of all federal drug-abuse programs, by agency and by activity.

Also in 1971, President Nixon called for ''an all out global war on the international drug traffic'' (1973 Federal Strategy, p. 112), and his organization for policy reflected the international perspective. International efforts were coordinated by the Cabinet Committee on International Narcotics Control (CCINC), chaired by the secretary of state. Established in August 1971, CCINC was responsible for developing a strategy to stop the flow of illegal narcotics into the United States and to coordinate federal efforts to implement that strategy. Domestic drug-law enforcement had a high priority within the normal cabinet-management system.

In January 1972, President Nixon created the Office of Drug Abuse Law Enforcement (ODALE) in the Department of Justice and gave the ODALE director, Myles J. Ambrose, the added title of Consultant to the President for Drug Abuse Law Enforcement. The directors of both SAODAP and ODALE had a policyoversight role in advising the president.

The 1972 legislation authorizing SAODAP also created the Strategy Council on Drug Abuse (known as ''The Strategy Council'') and directed the ''development and promulgation of a comprehensive, coordinated, long-term Federal strategy for all drug abuse prevention and drug traffic functions conducted, sponsored, or supported by the Federal government.'' The cabinet-level strategy council, with the directors of SAODAP and ODALE as co-chairmen, prepared the 1973 Federal Strategy for Prevention of Drug Abuse and Drug Trafficking, the first explicit strategy document.

During 1973, the drug program and drug-policy organizations underwent major change. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) established a special management office called Federal Drug Management (FDM), which supported OMB's senior officials, the CCINC, and the White House Domestic Council. Given unusually wide latitude in providing direct management assistance to the drug-related operating agencies, FDM assisted in implementation of President Nixon's Reorganization Plan No. 2 of 1973. Also in 1973, Dr. Jaffe was succeeded at SAODAP by Dr. Robert Dupont who in 1975 became the first director of the newly established National Institute on Drug Abuse. FDM also assumed oversight of the demand-related drug activities as SAODAP was phased out of the EOP. Before terminating in mid-1975, SAODAP published the 1974 and 1975 federal strategies, under the auspices of a relatively inactive Strategy Council.

In early 1975, President Gerald R. Ford directed the White House Domestic Council to review the federal drug effort. Vice-President Nelson A. Rockefeller chaired an interagency task force called the Domestic Council Drug Abuse Task Force, with the chief of FDM as study director. The task force, with advice from community organizations, prepared a comprehensive White Paper on Drug Abuse. The 1975 white paper recommended assigning responsibility for overall policy guidance to the Strategy Council on Drug Abuse; creating an EOP Cabinet Committee to coordinate prevention and treatment activities; and continuing a small staff in OMB to assist the Strategy Council and the EOP. In April 1976, President Ford announced two new cabinet committees, the Cabinet Committee on Drug Law Enforcement and the Cabinet Committee on Drug Abuse Prevention ''to ensure the coordination of all government resources which bear on the problem of drug abuse'' (1976 Strategy, p. 26). The cabinet committee structure, supported by the FDM staff, worked to the satisfaction of President Ford but did not satisfy Congress.

Congress enacted legislation establishing an Office of Drug Abuse Policy (ODAP) in March 1976, seeking a single individual in the EOP who had responsibility for the overall drug program. President Ford did not activate the new agency but continued with the three cabinet committees, supported by the FDM staff.

Executive Drug Policy 1977-1980. In March 1977, President Jimmy Carter revised the drug-policy structure, activating ODAP and abolishing the three drug-related cabinet committees. Also, he revitalized the strategy council, with the director of ODAP as executive director, to serve as the govern-mentwide advisory committee for all drug-abuse matters. ODAP worked particularly well with the

White House staff, partially because Director Peter Bourne was also special assistant to the president for health issues and had an excellent relationship with President Carter and the White House staff. ODAP aggressively pursued a wide range of policy and coordination activities, including a major review of all federal drug programs.

The President's Reorganization Project reviewed the organization of the Executive Branch and recommended abolishing ODAP in mid-1977. Within the EOP, ODAP was an unusual federal agency, with a strong presence and authority for a single issue, somewhat contrary to the normal EOP structure. Thus, ODAP was a logical target in efforts to streamline the EOP. Congress disagreed strongly with the elimination of ODAP, however. After congressional hearings and negotiations, the Carter Administration compromised by continuing part of the ODAP staff and all the ODAP functions as part of the White House Domestic Policy Staff (DPS).

In March 1978, six members of ODAP's staff were transferred to DPS and became the Drug Policy Office (DPO). DPO continued to perform the ODAP functions, including responding to congressional interests and reporting directly to Peter Bourne. After Bourne departed the White House staff in 1978, the drug staff worked through the director of the DPS. In May 1979, the president affirmed the head of DPO (Lee Dogoloff, the associate director for drug policy)—as the individual primarily responsible for the federal government's drug-abuse prevention and control programs. DPO published the 1979 Federal Strategy and a 1980 Annual Report. A major policy-coordinating mechanism was the monthly meetings held by DPO with the heads of the major operating agencies (called the Principals Group). DPO also supported another policy-coordinating mechanism called the National Narcotics Intelligence Consumers Committee, established in April 1978. DPO also initiated efforts to increase military support for drug-interdiction activities. During the transition to the Reagan Administration in early 1981, most of President Carter's DPO staff departed.

Executive Drug Policy 1981-1988. In 1981, President Ronald W. Reagan's Office of Policy Development (OPD) included a Drug Abuse Policy Office (DAPO) similar in organization and role to the preceding DPO. President Reagan charged DAPO with (1) a full range of policy-development and -coordination activities, (2) international ne gotiations, and (3) assisting First Lady Nancy Reagan's drug-abuse prevention efforts. In addition to overseeing the efforts of the federal drug agencies, DAPO emphasized the use of all opportunities for the federal government to encourage a wide range of nongovernment antidrug activities. DAPO was directed by Carlton Turner, a pharmacologist, who was succeeded in 1987 by Dr. Donald Ian Macdonald, a pediatrician. DAPO published the 1982 Federal Strategy and, reflecting the broader policy direction, published the first ''National'' Strategy in


DAPO continued the coordination meetings with the agency heads (the previous Principals Group, renamed the Oversight Working Group) and assisted in the design and implementation of the National Narcotics Border Interdiction System (NNBIS), headed by Vice-President George H. Bush. DPO assisted the Cabinet Council on Legal Policy and the Cabinet Council on Human Resources with drug matters until the cabinet councils were replaced by the Domestic Policy Council in April 1985. The Domestic Policy Council Working Group on Drug Abuse Policy prepared a major presidential drug initiative in 1986, with assistance from DAPO.

During this period, the oversight of drug law enforcement moved away from the White House.

In 1984, Congress had established a federal drug law-enforcement czar to ''facilitate coordination of U.S. operations and policy on illegal drug law enforcement.'' The attorney general was chairman of the new cabinet-level National Drug Enforcement Policy Board (NDEPB) with staff offices in the Department of Justice. DAPO was charged with ensuring ''coordination between the NDEPB and the health issues associated with drug abuse,'' in addition to supporting the president and the White House staff. In January 1987, the NDEPB published the National and International Drug Law Enforcement Strategy, which expanded on the sections of the 1984 National Strategy involving drug law enforcement and international controls. DAPO continued to provide Executive Office oversight of the entire drug program.

In 1987, President Reagan replaced the NDEPB by creating a National Drug Policy Board (NDPB) to coordinate all drug-abuse policy functions. The director of the White House DAPO was a member and assisted the NDPB in developing the health-related drug policy. The NDPB published Toward a Drug-Free America—The National Drug Strategy and Implementation Plans in 1988.

The White House Conference for a Drug Free America was opened in 1987 with DAPO assistance; it was charged with reviewing a wide range of drug programs, policies, and informational activities—including focusing ''public attention on the importance of fostering a widespread attitude of intolerance for illegal drugs and their use throughout all segments of our society'' (Executive Order No. 12595, Section 1(c)). The conference, chaired by Lois Haight Herrington, published a final report in 1988 with 107 wide-ranging recommendations, including a ''Cabinet-rank position of National Drug Director.''

In late 1988, Congress again passed drug czar legislation, authorizing a new agency named the Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) in the EOP.

Executive Drug Policy 1989-1990s. ONDCP began operation in the EOP in early 1989, absorbing the NDPB, and terminating the two existing White House drug activities, DAPO and NNBIS. Although never actually a member of the cabinet, the first two cabinet-level directors were given broad responsibilities for developing and guiding a National Drug Control Program, including developing an annual strategy and overseeing its implementation. The first director, William Bennett, had been secretary of education in the Reagan administration; he was succeeded by Bob Martinez, a former governor of Florida. ONDCP had oversight of organization, management, budget, and personnel allocations of all departments and agencies engaged in drugcontrol activities. ONDCP used a complex set of interagency coordinating committees under a Supply Reduction Working Group, a Demand Reduction Working Group, and a Research and Development Committee. The director chaired the NSC's Policy Coordinating Committee for Narcotics which ensured coordination between drug law enforcement and national security activities. The director also provided administrative support to the President's Drug Advisory Council, which in turn assisted ONDCP in supporting national drug-control objectives through private sector initiatives. ONDCP was also required to establish realistic and attainable goals for the following two years and the following ten years and to monitor progress toward the goals. Following the election of President Bill Clinton, Lee Brown, a criminologist and former New York police commissioner, was appointed director of ONDCP and was also given membership in the cabinet. The fourth director, retired Army General Barry R. McCaffrey, was appointed in 1996.

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