Crosstolerance And Crossdependence

The term acquired tolerance is applied to tolerance developing to the actions of the same drug that has been administered repeatedly. However, if a second drug has actions similar to those of the first, an individual who becomes tolerant to the first drug is usually also tolerant to the second drug, even on the first occasion when the latter is used. This phenomenon is called cross-tolerance, and it may be partial or complete—it may extend to all the effects of the second drug, or only to some of them. The adaptive changes in the nervous system that give rise to acquired tolerance are believed by most researchers (though not all) to be responsible also for the development of physical dependence. Thus, an adaptive change in cell function, opposite in direction to the effect of the drug, will offset the latter when the drug is present (tolerance), but will give rise to a withdrawal sign or symptom when the drug is removed. The term neuroadaptive state has been proposed to designate all the physiological changes underlying the development of tolerance and physical dependence. If the second drug, to which cross-tolerance is present, is given during withdrawal from the first, it can prevent or suppress the withdrawal effect; this is known as cross-dependence. A related concept is that of transfer of dependence, from a first drug on which a person has become dependent to a second drug with similar effects, that has been given therapeutically to relieve the withdrawal signs produced by the first.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Ahmed, S. H. and Koob, G. F. (1998). Transition from moderate to excessive drug intake: change in hedonic set point. Science, 282, 298-300. American Psychiatric Association (1994). Substance-Related Disorders. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (pp. 175-272). Washington, DC:APA. Begleiter, H. andKissin, B., Eds. (1995). The Genetics of Alcoholism. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bock, G. R. and Whelan, J., Eds. (1992). Cocaine: Scientific and Social Dimensions. Ciba Foundation Symposium 166. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.

Chaudron, C. D. and Wilkinson, D. A., Eds. (1988). Theories on Alcoholism. Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation.

Edwards, G. and Gross, M. M. (1976). Alcohol dependence: provisional description of a clinical syndrome. British Medical Journal 1, 1058-1061.

Glass, I. B. (1991). The International Handbook of Addiction Behaviour. London: Routledge.

Goldstein, A. (1994). Addiction: From Biology to Drug Policy). San Francisco: Freeman.

Goudie, A. J. and Emmett-Oglesby, M. (1989). Psychoactive Drugs—Tolerance and Sensitization. Clifton, NJ: Humana Press.

Kalant, H. (1989). The nature of addiction: an analysis of the problem. In A. Goldstein (Ed.), Molecular and Cellular Aspects of the Drug Addictions (pp. 1-28). New York: Springer-Verlag.

Kalant, H. (1996). Current state of knowledge about the mechanisms of alcohol tolerance. Addiction Biology 1, 133-141.

Kalant, O.J. (1973). The Amphetamines: Toxicity and Addiction, 2nd Ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Kalant, O.J. (1987). Maier's COCAINE ADDICTION (Der Kokainismus). Toronto: Addiction Research Foundation.

Keller, M. and McCormick, M. (1968). A Dictionary of Words about Alcohol. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Center of Alcohol Studies.

Poulos, C. X., Hinson, R. E. and Siegel, S. (1981). The role of Pavlovian processes in drug tolerance and dependence: implications for treatment. Addictive Behaviors 6, 205-211.

Rigter, H. and Crabbe, J. C., Jr., Eds. (1980). Alcohol Tolerance and Dependence. Amsterdam: Elsevier/ North-Holland Biomedical.

Robinson, T. E. and Berridge, K. C. (1993). The neural basis of drug craving: an incentive-sensitization theory of addiction. Brain Research Reviews, 18, 247291.

Royal Society of Canada (1989) Tobacco, Nicotine, and Addiction. Ottawa: Royal Society of Canada.

U.S. Surgeon General (1988). The Health Consequences of Smoking. Nicotine Addiction. Rockville, MD: USPHS/DHHS.

Wikler, A. (1977). The search for the psyche in drug dependence—A 35-year retrospective survey. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 165, 29-40.

World Health Organization (1952, 1957, 1973 and others). Reports of the Expert Committee on Problems of Drug Dependence (various). Technical Report Series of the World Health Organization. Geneva: WHO.

Harold Kalant

Drug Free Life

Drug Free Life

How To Beat Drugs And Be On Your Way To Full Recovery. In this book, you will learn all about: Background Info On Drugs, Psychological Treatments Statistics, Rehab, Hypnosis and Much MORE.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment