Measures of the subjective effects of drugs have been extremely useful in the study of pharmacology. Questionnaires have been developed that are sensitive to both the global effects and the specific effects of drugs; however, research is still underway to develop even more sensitive subjective-effect measures and new applications for their use.

(SEE ALSO: Abuse Liability of Drugs; Addiction: Concepts and Definitions; Causes of Substance Abuse; Drug Types)


Beecher, H. K. (1959). Measurement of subjective responses: Quantitative effects of drugs. New York: Oxford University Press. DeWit, H., & Griffiths, R. R. (1991). Testing the abuse liability of anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs in humans. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 28 (1), 83-111. Foltin, R. W., & Fischman, M. W. (1991). Assessment of abuse liability of stimulant drugs in humans: A methodological survey. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 28 (1), 3-48. Martin, W. R. (1977a). Drug addiction I. Berlin:

Springer-Verlag. Martin, W. R. (1977b). Drug addiction II. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Preston, K. L., & Jasinski, D. R. (1991). Abuse liability studies of opioid agonist-antagonists in humans. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 28 (1), 49-82.

Beat The Battle With The Bottle

Beat The Battle With The Bottle

Alcoholism is something that can't be formed in easy terms. Alcoholism as a whole refers to the circumstance whereby there's an obsession in man to keep ingesting beverages with alcohol content which is injurious to health. The circumstance of alcoholism doesn't let the person addicted have any command over ingestion despite being cognizant of the damaging consequences ensuing from it.

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