Measures of the subjective effects of drugs have been extremely useful in the study of pharmacology. Questionnaires have been developed that are sensitive to both the global effects and the specific effects of drugs; however, research is still underway to develop even more sensitive subjective-effect measures and new applications for their use.

(SEE ALSO: Abuse Liability of Drugs; Addiction: Concepts and Definitions; Causes of Substance Abuse; Drug Types)


Beecher, H. K. (1959). Measurement of subjective responses: Quantitative effects of drugs. New York: Oxford University Press. DeWit, H., & Griffiths, R. R. (1991). Testing the abuse liability of anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs in humans. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 28 (1), 83-111. Foltin, R. W., & Fischman, M. W. (1991). Assessment of abuse liability of stimulant drugs in humans: A methodological survey. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 28 (1), 3-48. Martin, W. R. (1977a). Drug addiction I. Berlin:

Springer-Verlag. Martin, W. R. (1977b). Drug addiction II. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Preston, K. L., & Jasinski, D. R. (1991). Abuse liability studies of opioid agonist-antagonists in humans. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 28 (1), 49-82.

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