CAFFEINE Caffeine is the world's most widely used behaviorally active drug. More than 80 percent of adults in North America consume caffeine regularly. Average per capita caffeine intakes in the United States, Canada, Sweden, and the United Kingdom have been estimated at 211 milligrams, 238 milligrams, 425 milligrams, and 444 milligrams per day, respectively; the world's per capita caffeine consumption is about 70 milligrams per day. These dose levels are well within the range of caffeine doses that can alter human behavior: As little as 32 milligrams of caffeine, less than the amount of caffeine in most 12-ounce cola soft drinks, can improve vigilance performance and reaction time; and doses as low as 10 milligrams, less than the amount of caffeine in some chocolate bars, can alter self-reports of mood. These data suggest that a large number of people are daily consuming behaviorally active doses of caffeine.

Caffeine-containing foods and beverages are ubiquitously available in and widely accepted by most contemporary societies—yet dietary doses of caffeine can produce behavioral effects that share characteristics with prototypic drugs of abuse: physical dependence, self-administration, and TOLERANCE. Chronic administration of only 100 milligrams of caffeine per day, the amount of caffeine in a cup of coffee, can produce PHYSICAL DEPENDENCE, as evidenced by severe and pronounced withdrawal symptoms that can occur upon abrupt termination of daily caffeine. Under some circumstances, research volunteers reliably self-administer dietary doses of caffeine, even when they are not informed that caffeine is the drug under study; and some evidence indicates that daily use of caffeine produces tolerance to caffeine's behavioral and physiological effects.

Anxiety Away

Anxiety Away

The strategies revealed within Anxiety Away are fast acting, simple and guaranteed to work even if you have suffered from anxiety for a long time!

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment