Allergies To Alcohol

DRUGS In addition to ALCOHOL, OPIATES, and BARBITURATES, some street drugs have been reported to induce allergic reactions. These allergic phenomena are most frequently mediated by reactions of the immune system known as immediate hypersensitivity and delayed hypersensitivity. Immediate hypersensitivity is mediated by the serum protein immunoglobulin E(IgE), whereas delayed hypersensitivity is mediated by thymus-derived lymphocytes (the white blood cells called T cells).

Immediate Hypersensitivity. The symptoms and signs associated with IgE-mediated immune reactions are urticaria (hives); bronchospasm that produces wheezing; angioedema (swelling) of face and lips or full-blown anaphylaxis (a combination of all the above symptoms and lowering of blood pressure). Abdominal pain and cardiac arrhythmias (irregular heartbeat) may also occur with an-aphylaxis. Any or all of these symptoms occur when IgE, which has previously been synthesized by a sensitized lymphocyte, fixes to mast cells or ba-

sophils in the skin, bronchial mucosa, and intestinal mucosa. This cell-fixed IgE then binds the antigen that triggers the release of the following—the histamine, the slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRSA), the bradykinin, and the other mediators that induce these symptoms. Examples of this type of allergic reaction are the allergic responses to either bee stings or to penicillin.

Similar symptoms may also occur when mediators are released by mast cells in response to chemical or physical stimuli. This is called an anaphylactoid reaction. In this instance, the mast cell or basophil is directly activated by the chemical to release mediators without having to bind to IgE. Examples of this type of reaction are responses to intravenous contrast material, such as IVP dye, or the hives induced by exposure to cold.

Delayed Hypersensitivity. Reactions occur when antigenic chemicals stimulate T lymphocytes and induce their proliferation. T effector cells are then recruited into the tissue site. These effector cells bind the antigen and subsequently release effector molecules, such as the interleukins, the che-motactic factors, and the enzymes. These effector molecules induce an inflammatory response in the area and may also induce formation of granuloma (a mass of inflamed tissue) by macrophages and inflammatory cells. Symptoms of delayed hyper-sensitivity reactions are skin rashes, which may be red, pruritic (itchy), or bullous (blistered) in nature. Granulomas can cause lymph node enlargement and nodules in the skin or in organs. Examples of this response are poison ivy, cosmetic allergies, Erythema Nodosum or Sarcoidosis.

Allergy Relief

Allergy Relief

Have you ever wondered how to fight allergies? Here are some useful information on allergies and how to relief its effects. This is the most comprehensive report on allergy relief you will ever read.

Get My Free Ebook

Post a comment