Adaptation Of Aa To Other Disorders

Despite the criticisms that have been directed against AA, its format and beliefs have nevertheless been applied to a wide variety of other addictions and behavior disorders. For example, NARCOTICS ANONYMOUS (NA) (estimated in 1979 to have about 700 groups in practically every U.S. state and in several other countries) first applied the AA pattern to drug addicts at the U.S. PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE Hospital at Lexington, Kentucky, in 1947. In 1948, and in 1953, groups of AA members who were also...

Adverse Effects

Benzodiazepines have proven to be exceptionally safe agents. The dose at which these agents are lethal tends to be exceedingly high. Fatalities are more apt to occur when these drugs are taken in combination with other central nervous system depressant agents such as ethanol. Sedation is a common adverse effect associated with benzodiazepine use. Light-headedness, confusion, and loss of motor coordination may all result following the administration of benzodiazepines. MEMORY impairment may be...

Alabama

Lighthouse of Tallapoosa County, Inc. 36 Franklin Street Alexander City, AL 35010 106 East 22nd Street Anniston, AL 36201 Calhoun Cleburne Mental Health Center New Directions 331 East 8th Street Anniston, AL 36202 2701 Jefferson Avenue SW Birmingham, AL 35211 201 Finley Avenue West Birmingham, AL 35204 Birmingham Health Care for the Homeless 712 25th Street North Birmingham, AL 35203 1625 12th Avenue South Birmingham, AL 35205 Jefferson 631 Beacon Parkway West, Suite 211 Department of Veterans...

Alcohol And Aids Alcohol and AIDS

(acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) from infection with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) are each separately agents that cause suppression of immune function. Therefore regular use of alcohol by people infected with HIV should be more suppressive than either alone. Some of the most interesting questions about infection with HIV including the following Why does progression to AIDS after HIV infection vary in length of time from under 1 year to 15 years of more Does inhibition of mental...

Alcohol Chronic Effects

Alcohol has direct toxic effects on neurons and, in association with other medical consequences of alcohol abuse, such as liver damage and inadequate nutrition, can result in significant and lasting cognitive deficits. There is no clear indication of the level of consumption that might put one at risk for such consequences, but safe drinking guidelines of no more than twelve to fourteen drinks per week probably represent a minimum level. Although there are no precise data on the incidence of...

Aversion Therapy See Treatment

AYAHUASCA In 1851, the botanist Richard Spruce observed natives along the Rio Negro in Brazil preparing a beverage from the roots of a vine, which he called Banisteria caapi, of the family Malpighiaceae (it was recently designated Ban-isteriopsis caapi.) He later observed the use of a similar drink in the Ecuadorian Amazon basin, where it was called ayahuasca (from the Quechua language, spoken in the Andes). He noted that the brew was often a mixture of Banisteria caapi with the roots of...

Assessment And Management Of Neonatal Opioid Abstinence

With proper management, the neonate's prognosis for recovery from the acute phase of withdrawal is good. If symptoms of withdrawal appear, simple nonspecific measures should be instituted, such as gentle, infrequent handling, swaddling, and demand feeding. Careful attention to fluid-electrolyte balance and calorie support is essential in opioid-exposed infants undergoing withdrawal, since they display uncoordinated sucking, feed poorly, often develop vomiting and diarrhea, and have increased...

Barbiturates Complications

Barbiturates are central nervous system (CNS) DE PRESSANTS (downers). These drugs produce sedative, hypnotic, and anesthetic effects. Depending on the dose used, any single drug in this class may produce sedation (decreased responsiveness), hypnosis (sleep), and anesthesia (loss of sensation). A small dose will produce sedation and relieve ANXIETY and tension a somewhat larger dose taken in a quiet setting will usually produce sleep an even larger dose will produce unconsciousness. The sleep...

Behavioral Effects

As with all PSYCHOMOTOR STIMULANT drugs, at low doses animals are active and alert, showing increases in responding maintained by other reinforcers, but often decreasing food intake. Higher doses produce species-specific repetitive behavior patterns (stereotyped behavior), and further increases in dose are followed, as in humans, by convulsions, hyperthermia, and death. Tolerance (loss of response to a certain dose) develops to many of amphetamine's central effects, and...

Bibliography

Hypnotics and sedatives. In A. G. Gilman, L. S. Goodman, & A. Gilman (Eds.), Goodman and Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics, 6th ed. New York Macmillan. CHLORDIAZEPOXIDE Chlordiazepoxide (brand name Librium) is a member of the BENZODIAZEPINE family of drugs currently used to treat insomnia, anxiety, muscle spasms, and some forms of epilepsy. It was the first benzodiazepine to be used in clinical practice in the 1960s, as an alternative to...

Brain Structures And Drugs

Psychoactive or behaviorally active drugs are substances that alter internal and external behavioral processes including activity levels, moods and feelings. As a result of these changes, while some of these substances can lead to compulsive drug use and drug addiction, others are used to manage neu-ropsychological disorders. In both cases these drugs do not produce unique behavioral or neurological effects. Their behavioral activity results from modifying existing neuronal systems. To...

Changing Medical Policies On Drug Control

The situation changed in the early 1960s, however, and, based on recommendations of the second Brain Committee (1964), clinics for controlling and containing the heroin problem were implemented under the Dangerous Drug Act Regulations in 1968. Responsibility for the treatment of addicts generally was shifted from general practitioners (GPs) to Drug Dependency Units (DDUs). When a heroin abuser seeks treatment from a GP, however, the doctor can refuse treatment, refer the patient to a DDU, or...

Cannabinoids

Marijuana is probably still the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States, with about 55 percent of young adults reporting some experience with the drug during their lifetimes. The active ingredient in MARIJUANA is delta9-TETRAHY-DROCANNABINOL (A9-THC), which exerts its most prominent effects on the central nervous system and the cardiovascular system. A marijuana cigarette that contains approximately 2 percent of the active ingredient can produce an increase in feelings of...

Cannabis

Marijuana, a by-product of the plant Cannabis sativa, remains the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States, although its use has been decreasing steadily for the past several years. Both the plant and its psychoactive ingredient Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) are controlled substances. The U.S. government estimates that Mexico still supplies the majority of the marijuana available in the United States, perhaps as much as 63 percent. Domestic supply accounts for another 18 percent,...

Brief History

Early in the 1940s, wives started attending AA meetings and soon began to informally meet together. By the late 1940s, there were so many family members at AA affairs that the AA Board of Trustees had to decide how to manage this valuable but perplexing influx. Since relatives of AA members had already begun to hold their own meetings, the board recommended that AA meetings be only for alcoholics but that whenever family members asked to participate they should be listed at the AA General...

Characteristics

The following five characteristics form the common thread weaving through the lives of many, if not most, family members of alcoholics and other drug addicts 1. Codependents change who they are, and what they are feeling, to please others. Codependents are chameleons who sacrifice their own identity in an effort to get others to love them. They do this for two reasons. First, they fear being abandoned if people know how they really feel or who they really are. Second, they have so little sense...

Chronic Drug Use And Vulnerability To Stress

The question of whether addicts are more sensitive to the effects of stress on drug intake has received recent attention. It is now well known that the most commonly used addictive substances such as alcohol, nicotine, psychostimulants such as amphetamines and cocaine, opiates and marijuana which stimulate the brain reward pathways, also activate brain stress systems by stimulating release of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) which in turn activates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA)...

Charles S Lieber Revised by Ralph Myerson

Liver Damage (Other Drugs) The liver is the largest organ of the human body, normally weighing about 3.3 pounds (1.5 kg). It occupies the right upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity just below the diaphragm. As befitting its anatomical prominence, its function is essential to maintain life. If we surgically removed the entire liver from any animal (including humans), it will fall into a coma shortly and die. The absence of a certain critical mass of functioning liver tissue is incompatible...

Clinical Uses

The principles of drug interactions can be used clinically for the treatment of acute INTOXICATION and for WITHDRAWAL by transforming, reducing, or blocking the pharmacological properties and or the toxic effects of drugs used and abused for nonmedical purposes. Although these interactions often involve a competition with the abused drug for similar central nervous system RECEPTOR sites, other mechanisms are also clinically relevant. Disulfiram and Alcohol (Ethanol). One such...

Cognitive And Behavioral Therapy

Behavioral perspectives of cocaine dependence view drug taking as a learned behavior that begins and continues because of the reinforcing effects of the drug. These reinforcing effects are determined, in part, by basic biological events in the brain. This means that, to some extent, most persons are susceptible to becoming dependent because cocaine produces a reaction in the brain that increases the likelihood that drug taking will recur. The other factors that determine whether a person will...

Cocaine And Amphetamine

The problems associated with chronic cocaine and amphetamine use and withdrawal are much more serious than those associated with caffeine. By the mid-1980s, more than 20 million people had used cocaine in the United States. With the recent introduction of cocaine in the free alkaloid base (FREEBASE or CRACK) form, there has been a significant increase in cocaine-related medical, economic, social, and legal problems. In the free-base form, cocaine can be smoked, resulting in blood levels and...

Community Substanceabuse Treatment

Drug abusers in community treatment are involved with community corrections. They are frequently on diversion, probation, parole, or mandatory release. Early data from the Client Oriented Data Acquisition Process (CODAP) indicates that 17 percent of clients who entered drug-abuse treatment were on probation, parole, or mandatory release. By 1982, CODAP reported an increase in community corrections involvement for 27 percent of the males and 15 percent of the females. During the 1980s, Hubbard...

Community Partnerships

Parents Movement Prevention Movement COMPLICATIONS This section has articles on some aspects of the physical and psychological complications of substance abuse. It contains an overview of Medical and Behavioral Toxicity and individual articles on the following Cardiovascular System Cognition Dermatological Endocrine and Reproductive Systems Immunologic Liver (Alcohol) Liver Damage (Other Drugs) Mental Disorders Neurological Nutritional and those Due to Route of Administration. Each article is...

Constipation

Constipation, an often undesirable effect of opi-oids, is sometimes a useful effect for which opioids can be prescribed. It is undesirable when opioids are used for the relief of pain and in opioid-depen-dence maintenance therapy. The oldest of the therapeutic actions of opiates is their antidiarrheal and constipating effects. It is now known that the extrinsic innervation (nerves leading from the central nervous system to the gut) and the intrinsic innervation (nerves within the wall) of the...

Consequences

A 1993 survey found that 5.1 percent of current drinkers had had a physical health problem due to their drinking at some point. About 2 percent said it had interfered with their friendships or social life, and 2.1 percent said it had affected their home lives or marriages. Finally, 4.7 percent said it affected their financial positions. In 1996, about 8 percent of current drinkers reported drinking and driving. Of fatally injured drivers who had been tested, 45 percent had positive Blood...

Declaration Aspects Of Legal Regulation

Government sends messages by its actions as well as its words. By declaring conduct illegal or by using any of the other instruments of legal intervention described above, the government expresses and formalizes social norms. However, knowledge of the official preferences may actually encourage the disapproved behavior among disaffected, outsider groups. Measuring such symbolic effects is difficult because of the need to isolate these hypothesized effects from other influences on attitudes and...

Distinguishing Neurons

Since neurons come in so many shapes and sizes, early investigators of the brain sought to make distinctions among them, based in part on their locations, their sizes and shapes, and the connections they could be shown to receive or emit. Every scientist who worked in the formative era of brain research sought to describe a unique subset of neurons that were forever after named for their initial describer or the unique property defined. Thus, we have Betz neurons, large layer V-VI neurons of...

Dopamine

Because abused substances clearly enhance the rewarding value of the intracranial stimulation and not simply cause a general increase in motor behavior, the brain-stimulation-reward model directly allows for the study of the neuronal mechanisms involved in the rewarding effects of abused substances. Although this is not as homologous a model of drug-taking behavior as is the self-administration model, it predicts as well as the self-administration model the Abuse Liability of compounds, and it...

Druguse Sequence

The use of one drug is often related to the subsequent use of another. Typically, drug use begins with alcohol and cigarettes, which are followed by marijuana and other illicit drugs. This typical sequence of drug use was established in the 1970s (Kandel & Faust, 1975) and was found to continue into the 1990s, in different populations and in different ethnic and cultural groups. Problem drinking typically fits into the pattern between ongoing marijuana use and the use of other illicit drugs...

Drugs And The Liver

There are many drugs in medicinal use that can have direct liver toxicity. Peculiarly, most of the psychoactive drugs that people tend to abuse are not known to be particularly harmful to the liver. Occasional liver damage has been reported with Solvent sniffing and Cocaine use, but this is not a common problem. Narcotics (opioids), anti-anxiety, and other sedative drugs (such as BARBITURATES), Marijuana, and Hallucinogens do not usually cause liver injury. There are, however, several relevant...

Edward J Cone Revised by Amy Loerch Strymolo

HALF-LIFE See Dose-Response Relationship HALFWAY HOUSES Although the term is of recent origin as used in connection with alcohol or drug treatment, the basic idea of the halfway house is almost two hundred years old. It designates a residential facility that provides a drug-free environment for individuals recovering from drug or alcohol problems but not yet able to live independently without jeopardizing their progress. By definition, halfway houses are not located in hospitals or PRISONS, but...

Eclectic Treatment

Many treatment providers use an eclectic approach to treat cocaine dependence that is, a combination of approaches. For example, many programs based on a disease or a psychodynamic model may use certain behavioral procedures such as contingency contracting or relapse prevention strategies. In a collaborative cocaine treatment study conducted by the National Institute on Drug Abuse, researchers found that group drug therapy plus individual drug counseling was more effective than cognitive...

Alcohol And Mindaltering Drugs

When alcohol is combined with mind-altering (psychotropic) drugs such as those prescribed to fight psychosis and depression, the combined effects of alcohol and the medicine are less predictable than with other drugs. Antipsychotic drugs inhibit the metabolism of alcohol and may thus markedly increase its effects on the CNS in the elderly. Antidepressants increase the response to alcohol and harm one's control over one's mo- Drugs Producing Antabuse-like Reactions with Alcohol Disulfiram...

Alcohol Ethanol

In rats and mice, an acute (a large) dose of alcohol prior to learning usually impairs memory of the training. The effect is heightened by the drug clonazepam, a BENZODIAZEPINE RECEPTOR AGONIST it is lessened by bicuculline and picrotoxin, drugs that block receptors for the inhibitory Neurotransmitter GABA (GABA-A receptors). Such findings suggest that ethanol-induced amnesia is mediated by the benzodiazepine GABA-A receptor complex. These findings are consistent with extensive evidence that...

Ethanolethyl Alcohol

ETHCHLORVYNOL This is a complex alcohol that causes depression of the central nervous system (CNS). It is a SEDATIVE-HYPNOTIC drug typically used on a short-term basis to treat insomnia and is prescribed and sold under the name Placidyl. Because of its depressant effects on the brain, it can impair the mental and or physical abilities necessary to operate machinery, such as an automobile. Continued use of ethchlorvynol can result in Tolerance and Physical Dependence leading to abuse. Since the...

Family Violence And Substance

ABUSE Substance abuse has a profound impact on Americans of all ethnic groups. Many people are concerned about substance abuse, especially because it is believed that it has the major consequence of increasing rates of crimes such as robbery and ''drive-by'' homicides. Yet the physiological, psychological, and social effects of substance abuse extend well beyond acts by individuals against strangers substance abuse has especially adverse effects on families. Most individuals' illicit drug use...

Floyd Bloom

GLUTETHIMIDE Glutethimide was introduced into clinical medicine in 1954. It was prescribed to treat insomnia and sold as Doriden. It was first acclaimed as a safer ''nonbarbiturate'' hypnotic implying that it was free of the problems of abuse, addiction, and withdrawal that were, by then, recognized drawbacks of the older barbiturate SEDATIVE-HYPNOTICS. Within ten years, however, it was recognized that, in most respects, its actions are like those of the BARBITURATES and it shares the same...

Basic Experimental Results

One of the more striking aspects of the drug discrimination technique is the strong relationship that has been found between the stimulus-generalization profile and the receptor-binding characteristics of the training drug. For example, animals trained to discriminate between a BENZODIAZEPINE anxiolytic, such as CHLORDIAZEPOXIDE, and saline solution typically respond similarly to other drugs that also interact with the receptor sites for benzodiazepine ligands. Anxiolytic drugs that produce...

From 1000 To 1500

The Middle Ages was marked by a rapid spread of both Christianity and Islam. Large-scale political and economic integration spread with them to many areas that had previously seen only local warring factions, and sharp social stratification between nobles and commoners was in evidence at courts and manors, where food and drink were becoming more elaborate. National groups began to appear, with cultural differences (including preferred drinks and ways of drinking) increasingly noted by...

Gavril W Pasternak

OVERDOSE, DRUG (OD) Administration of a drug in a quantity that exceeds that which the body can metabolize or excrete before toxicity develops constitutes an overdose. Whether it is accidental or deliberate, drug overdose is a significant problem that is encountered by providers of emergency medical care. Accidental overdose is common among users of illegal substances of abuse, since little reliability can be placed on the potency, presence of adulterants, and even identity of the street...

Gregory W Brock Ellen Burke

TOXICITY See Complications Poison Control Centers, Appendix I, Volume 4 TRANSIT COUNTRIES FOR ILLICIT DRUGS Transit countries are those through which drug shipments travel to reach local dealers and users. Drugs that come to the United States from South America pass through a six million square-mile transit zone that is approximately the size of the continental United States. This zone includes the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean, and the eastern Pacific Ocean. U.S. strategy to deal with the...

Glue

Glues are made by dissolving a sticky or adhesive material in a solvent. When the solvent evaporates, the adhesive material remains attached to the surfaces to which it is applied, sticking them together. Glues are complex mixtures formulated for specific purposes. They are not designed for human consumption. When inhaled, they may produce severe injury or death. Most of the solvents used in glues are flammable, and fires have resulted from their inappropriate use. The solvent mixtures in glues...

Goals

The primary one is to reduce the consumption of specific drugs within the nation by making it more expensive and risky for smugglers to conduct their business. Drug seizures raise costs by increasing the amount that has to be shipped in order to ensure that a given quantity will reach the market. Additionally, an effective interdiction program will, among other things, raise the probability that a courier is arrested, thereby increasing the price smugglers...

Group Therapy

Many professionals suggest that group therapy is an invaluable component of cocaine abuse treatment. Most groups are structured to include persons of different backgrounds and at different stages of recovery (1) to help deal with feelings of uniqueness, (2) to expose those in the early stage of treatment to positive role models, and (3) to help instill hope for success. Those who promote group therapy view peer pressure and support as necessary to overcome ambivalence about abstaining from...

Hispanics And Alcohol

Among Hispanic and many other groups, ALCOHOL use has been easier to study than the use of illicit drugs many of its patterns are similar to and may shed light on drug use. As they do with drugs, Hispanics use less alcohol over their lifetimes than do Anglos (i.e., non-Hispanic white U.S. inhabitants in general, not just those of English ancestry), and their usage is only very slightly more than that of blacks. Again as with drugs, there are sharp gender differences in alcohol use, which are...

Coca Production

Historically, the chewing of coca leaves was a cultural practice among the Indian peasant laborers of the Andes. The mild stimulation received from the low cocaine-content leaves enabled workers to endure the burdens of their 12- to 14-hour days in the mines and in the fields, so both Bolivian and Peruvian laws have permitted controlled production of coca for domestic consumption about 12,000 kilograms (kg) in Bolivia (which also includes production for international pharmaceutical use). A part...

Injecting Drug Users And

One of the major risk behaviors for infection by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is injecting drug use the others are unprotected male homosexual sex (Centers for Disease Control, 1991a) and unprotected heterosexual sex with an HIV-infected partner. The NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON Drug Abuse (NIDA) estimated that there were between 1.1 and 1.3 million injecting drug users (IDUs) in the United States in the late 1980s (Centers for Disease Control, 1987). Although the number of IDUs increased...

Incidence And Prevalence Of Drug Abuse

Although the casual use of drugs is decreasing in the United States, reported drug abuse is increasing in women of child-bearing age. While it is believed that more children are being raised by alcohol-, tobacco-, or other drug (ATOD)-abusing parents, the scope of the problem is undetermined. Longitudinal studies of children of ATOD-abusing parents are currently underway by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), the NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON Drug Abuse (NIDA), and the National Institute on...

Interpretations Of Test Results

A positive or negative result is highly dependent on the sensitivity of the drug detection method. A false negative occurs when the drug is present but is not found because the detection limit of the method used is too high or the absolute quantity of the drug in the specimen is too low. Large amounts of fluids consumed prior to obtaining a sample for analysis can affect detection of drugs in urine samples. Under conditions of dilution, although the absolute amount of drug or...

Conclusion

Preventing the spread of AIDS for IDUs and their sex partners requires a multidisciplinary, multiple-strategy approach. Community-intervention strategies have proven to be partially effective in reducing IDU risk behaviors (Leukefeld, Battjes, & Amsel, 1990). Much remains to be accomplished, however. Targeting HIV-prevention approaches and interventions will receive additional emphasis as the epidemic progresses (Leukefeld & Battjes, 1991). Research needs to continue to examine methods to...

Jerome H Jaffe

Agencies Supporting Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), originally established in 1953 as the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHEW), a number of Public Health Service (PHS) agencies have been involved in reducing drug abuse. From 1974 to 1992, many demand-reduction activities have related to increasing, through research, the scientific foundations for a better understanding of how drugs of abuse interact with...

Lorenzo Cohen Andrew Baum

STRUCTURED CLINICAL INTERVIEW FOR DSM-IV (SCID) This is a diagnostic interview designed for use by mental health professionals. It assesses thirty-three of the more commonly occurring psychiatric disorders described in the fourth edition of the diagnostic and statistical manual (DSM-IV) of the American Psychiatric Association (1994). Among these are mood disorders (including major depressive disorder), psychotic disorders (including schizophrenia), anxiety disorders (including panic disorder)...

Cropsubstitution Difficulties

Several inherent difficulties exist with crop-substitution approaches. 1. Many of the growing regions are remote inhospitable areas, outside central government control. 2. In a free-market economy, no legitimate crop can compete with either coca or opium as an income-producing agricultural commodity. Even if there were competitive substitutes, with the immense profits from the drug trade, the drug traffickers could continue to raise the price to compete for willing cultivators. 3. Much of the...

Longterm Opioid Addiction Careers

To study long-term addiction careers, a sample of 697 daily OPIOID (primarily HEROIN) users were followed up with again, at twelve years after enter ing treatment (and 80 were located). It was found that about 25 percent of the sample was still addicted to daily opioid use in year twelve. Length of addiction (defined as the time between first and last daily opioid use) ranged from one to thirty-four years. Of the total sample, 50 percent was addicted nine-and-a-half years or longer, yet 59...

Marian W Fischman

COCAETHYLENE IMMUNOLOGIC, HEPATIC, AND CARDIAC EFFECTS Concomitant cocaine and ethanol use produce the compound cocaethylene. A 1995 study estimated that 60 to 80 percent of cocaine users consume ethanol simultaneously. Some users of cocaine mix it with ethanol together as they extend the euphoric sensation and lessen the dysphoria associated with a cessation of cocaine. Cocaethylene, a compound synthesized in vivo, was only identified in 1979. It also has been named in literature as...

Dextroamphetamine This is the

It is classified as a PSYCHOMOTOR STIMULANT drug and is three to four times as potent as the l-isomer in eliciting central nervous system (CNS) excitatory effects. It is also more potent than the l-isomer in its ANORECTIC (appetite suppressant) activity, but slightly less potent in its cardiovascular actions. It is prescribed in the treatment of narcolepsy and OBESITY, although care must be taken in such prescribing because of the substantial ABUSE LIABILITY. High-dose...

Malcolm H Lader

BENZOYLECOGNINE Cocaine is metabolized by plasma and liver enzymes (cholinesterases) to water-soluble metabolites that are excreted in the urine. The two major metabolites are ben-zoylecognine and ecognine methyl ester, with only benzoylecognine reported to have behavioral activity. Since COCAINE has a relatively short half-life and may only be present in the urine for twenty-four to thirty-six hours, benzoylecognine levels in urine are useful markers of cocaine use, because it is present for a...

Myroslava Romach Karen Parker

APHRODISIAC An aphrodisiac is a substance that can be administered topically, internally, by injection, or by inhalation to stimulate sexual arousal or to enhance sexual performance. The term is based on Aphrodite, the ancient Greek goddess of love and beauty, and it came into the English language during the early 1800s. Although no solid scientific evidence exists for any substances that have selective effect on sexual function, many foods and food combinations have a long-standing reputation...

NickE Goeders

DOVER'S POWDER Dover's Powder, developed and described by the British physician Thomas Dover in 1732, was one of the more popular and enduring of the opium-based medications that were widely used in the United States and Europe prior to the twentieth century. The medication combined OPIUM with what we know today as ipecac (ipecacuanha), a substance that induces vomiting. The result was a pain-reducing potion that might induce a sense of euphoria but could not be ingested in large quantities...

Operant Models Contingency Management

Contingency management has been incorporated into many drug-treatment programs as a way of assisting people in reducing drug use. In contingency management, reinforcers or punishers are applied depending on the patient s behavior. Often, contingencies are formalized in a contract. In contingency contracting, a treatment plan is developed and agreed to by treatment staff and patient. As part of the contract, both agree that certain consequences will occur as a result of certain behaviors on the...

Neurotransmitter Substances

Besides categorizing the parts of the brain by structure, the brain can also be separated into systems based on the distribution of the chemicals that nerve cells use to communicate with one another. Thus, cell bodies for some important nerve cells are localized in specific brain nuclei (collection of nerve cell bodies). Some drugs of abuse have specific actions on subsets of cells that use or release a specific chemical to communicate with other cells. For example, ALCOHOL (ethanol) is...

Neurobehavior In The Newborn

The Brazelton Neonatal Assessment Scale has been used extensively for evaluating newborn behavior. This instrument assesses reaction to stimuli such as a light or a bell, responsivity to animate and inanimate stimuli (face, voice, bell, rattle), state (sleep to alertness to crying), the requirements of state change (such as irritability and consolability), and neurological and motor development. When using this scale in evaluating drug-exposed infants, it was noted that they were less able than...

Nutrition Alcohol And Drugs

OBESITY This term derives from the Latin (obesus, meaning ''to eat up''), and it came into use in English in the early 1600s to mean a condition characterized by excessive bodily fat. Excess body weight is associated with the increased storage of energy in the form of adipose tissue. Standard criteria for obesity are (1) greater than 20 percent above ideal body weight (IDW) for a given height, as determined from actuarial tables, or (2) body mass index (BMI), defined as weight in kilograms...

Opioids

Due to preexisting conditions and ongoing active drug use, the opioid-dependent woman frequently suffers from chronic ANXIETY and DEPRESSION. Social problems, such as POVERTY, HOMELESSNESS, involvement in an abusive or battering relationship, and ALCOHOLISM, may overwhelm her ability to cope with life activities. She usually lacks confidence and hope for the future and has extreme difficulty with interpersonal relationships, especially with men. One study found that 83 percent of addicted women...

Other Drugs

The major involvement of alcohol in traffic accidents and other injuries is well documented. What conclusions can we draw about the role of drugs other than alcohol in traffic safety Although laboratory studies on the effects of many drugs and alcohol are similar in demonstrating the impairment of performance skills, there are difficulties in executing epidemiological studies on the effects of drugs in driving. For example, few non-crash-involved drivers volunteer to provide blood samples so...

Nitrous Oxide

Nitrous oxide is a volatile analgesic and anesthetic agent. It was discovered at the beginning of the nineteenth century by Sir Humphry Davy, who was looking for gases and vapors that might have some therapeutic use. Nitrous oxide quickly produces an inebriation that many found pleasurable, and it rapidly became the subject of much experimentation and merrymaking. Nitrous oxide parties became very fashionable, but could not long be limited to the upper classes. Popular demonstrations were...

Efficacy Of 12step Based Treatment

TSF has been found to be effective in producing significant and sustained reductions in alcohol use (Project Match Research Group, 1997 Seraganian et al., 1998). A further finding from Project Match, and supported by other research (Fiorentine, 1999), is a correlation between attendance at 12-step meetings and abstinence from alcohol and drug use. Finally, greater involvement in 12-step fellowships (e.g., getting a sponsor, taking on responsibilities) has been found to correlate positively with...

Europe As Transit Area For Illicit Drugs See International Drug Supply

EXCLUSIONARY RULE In legal proceedings, the exclusionary rule prohibits the use of any evidence obtained in contravention of the U.S. Constitution. The rule is frequently invoked when government authorities seize evidence in violation of the Fourth Amendment s prohibition against unlawful searches and seizures. Evidence may be illegally obtained when government officials do not have a warrant to search an individual s premises or the warrant is defective. Law enforcement officers may also lack...

Oxidation By Cytochrome P450 Monooxygenase

Oxygen is vital for living organisms, and enzymatic reactions involving this molecule for drug metabolism are numerous and well characterized. Lipid-solubility is an important factor for absorption across the stomach and intestinal wall, and the insertion of an oxygen atom to lipid-soluble compounds results in hydroxylated groups (-OH) that are more water-soluble than the parent compound. The pioneering work on the oxygenation reaction involved the metabolism of BARBITURATES, a class of...

Ethical Considerations

A number of codes and regulations agreed on by scientists and the lay public provide norms for the conduct of research and testing with human volunteers. In general, they require a clear statement, understandable to the volunteer, of the risks and benefits of the testing procedure, as well as an explicit consent document in written form. After it is clear that the participant thoroughly appreciates all that is involved and the potential consequences of participation, the volunteer signs the...

Outpatient Versus Inpatient Treatment

Studies suggest that inpatient rehabilitation is not cost-effective in most cases of cocaine dependence. It is also not necessary in most cases because withdrawal from cocaine addiction is not physically dangerous, nor does it cause an incapacitating reaction. However, inpatient treatment may be indicated in some instances of cocaine dependence if the patient (1) fails to make progress or deteriorates during outpatient treatment (2) has severe medical or psychiatric problems (3) is physically...

Gender And Substance Abuse Treatment

Men outnumber women in drug and alcoholism treatment units. The 1991 National Drug and Alcoholism Treatment Unit Survey (NDATUS) found 213,681 women in some type of treatment, compared with 562,388 men (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1992). Self-reports of treatment experience indicate a somewhat smaller sex difference. In the 1991 NHSDA, 1.8 percent of males aged twelve and older reported they were treated for substance abuse in the previous year, compared with 0.9 percent of...

Pharmacology

The amphetamines act by increasing concentrations of the neurotransmitters Dopamine and Norepinephrine at the neuronal synapse, thereby augmenting release and blocking uptake. It is the augmentation of release that differentiates amphetamines from cocaine, which also blocks uptake of these transmitters. Humans given a single moderate dose of amphetamine generally show an increase in activity and talkativeness, and they report euphoria, a general sense of well-being, and a decrease in both food...

Personality Disorder The concept

Of personality refers to the set of relatively stable and characteristic behaviors that individuals display in perceiving and responding to the environment, along with a particular way of thinking about themselves. These patterns of behavior and self-perception are called personality traits. They are manifested in a variety of social interactions in day-to-day living, and their diversity is extensive. When these traits become exaggerated, inflexible, and maladaptive, they begin to impair social...

Overall Significance

Youth drug prevention programs are seen as a vital, though often needing improvement, resource in the attempt to help today's society. Continuing evaluation of such programs is crucial since the programs need funding and are expensive. In May 2000, House and Senate subcommittees proposed further cuts (as compared to the cuts of 1999) to the substance abuse prevention budget for development and application grants. paa It is inherently difficult, of course, to prevent or change undesirable...

Pharmacological Treatment Approaches

The most common and first-line treatment approach is to try to get the addict to stop using heroin by detoxification. Detoxification refers to using medications to treat withdrawal symptoms. The heroin withdrawal symptoms are similar to the symptoms of a severe flu. Although these withdrawal symptoms are rarely medically dangerous for those in good health, they are extremely uncomfortable, and, in many addicts, they make the alternative, using heroin, more attractive than detoxification. Severe...

Philip J Cook Revised by Sarah Knox

SOCIAL MODEL See Disease Concept of Alcoholism and Drug Abuse SOCIETY OF AMERICANS FOR RECOVERY (SOAR) See Treatment Programs Centers Organizations An Historical Perspective SOURCE COUNTRIES FOR ILLICIT DRUGS The 1987 Omnibus Drug Bill requires the U.S. Department of State to develop a list of all major illicit drug-producing and drug-transit countries. Inclusion on the list has an immediate effect, because sanctions include cutting off foreign assistance, other than humanitarian and...

Pcp And Violence

Many people associate the abuse of PCP with violence and aggression, so this concern deserves special mention. Those under the influence of PCP often behave erratically and exercise poor judgment. These effects of PCP could certainly lead to violent behavior, and there are certainly numerous examples of extremely violent acts being performed by persons under the influence of PCP. This raises the question of whether PCP is uniquely associated with the production of violence and aggression Is...

Physical Effects

Scientific research indicates the likelihood that there is no level of alcohol consumption guaranteed free from risk for any period during pregnancy. Individuals react very differently to alcohol and it is difficult, if not impossible, to predict which women will produce a child with FAS. The exception to this is the woman who has already given birth to a child with FAS or FAE. If this woman continues to drink at the same or an increased level, it is highly likely that her subsequent pregnancy...

Phencyclidine Pcp Adverse Effects Widely known as Pcp Phencyclidine

Is an important drug of abuse in the United States, even though its use has declined since the 1980s. PCP is difficult to classify pharmacologically and is considered separately from the hallucinogens. The drug has not been studied systematically in animals, although research done in 1973 and 1980 indicated that it produces dependence in monkeys. As of 1999, its effects on the human central nervous system are poorly understood. It produces a unique type of hallucinatory effect and is used both...

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Ptsd And Substance Abuse

Following extreme stresses beyond the realm of normal human experience, symptoms of anxiety including intrusive recollections of the trauma, au-tonomic hyperactivity, and nightmares have long been observed, but PTSD as a psychiatric diagnosis is much newer. Following recognition of this disorder, the link with substance abuse has been the subject of a number of studies. Rates of alcoholism in PTSD range from 40 to 80 percent, while other forms of substance abuse may range from 20 to 50 percent....

Prescription Drugs And Cancer

Very few drugs that are suspected of causing cancer in humans are used in contemporary medical practice. Those that are, however, fall into two significant categories alkylating agents that are used to treat cancer and birth control pills and other hormone preparations. Alkylating agents. These antineoplastic drugs include busulfan (Myleran), used to treat leukemia that has not responded to other drugs cyclophos-phamide (Cytoxan), an immunosuppressant used to treat ovarian cancer and malignant...

Reducing Risktaking Behavior

Drug-abuse treatment and prevention can be effective in controlling the spread of AIDS among IDUs and for reducing the risk of exposure to the HIV virus. The goals of drug treatment and prevention are different. The goal of treatment is to eliminate injecting drug use as a risk factor in the spread of HIV. The goal of prevention is to reduce and eliminate harmful behaviors, like sharing needles, that place the IDU at risk for either becoming infected or infecting others with HIV. Prevention...

How To Withdraw

Essentially, the patient must be prepared for withdrawal by being told what to expect he or she should be taught other ways of combatting anxiety and withdrawal should be by graded tapering off the dose over six to twelve weeks, occasionally longer. Many people experience little or no upset, a few undergo much distress. Sometimes substituting diazepam in the lorazepam or alprazolam user helps. Antidepressants may be needed if the patient becomes very depressed, but by and large, other drugs are...

Repeal Of Prohibition

RESEARCH This section is devoted primarily to detailed explanations of the ways in which behavioral psychologists and psychopharmaco-logists explore the interactions between drug actions and behavior in laboratory settings. The section begins with an overview article, Aims, Description, and Goals. The article Developing Medications to Treat Substance Abuse and Dependence ties basic research directly to clinical applications. The articles on Drugs as Discriminitive Stimuli Measuring Effects of...

Reproduction And Pregnancy

Impotence, atrophy of the testes, infertility, and decreased libido are not uncommon complaints in male alcoholics. These observations are thought to be secondary to the direct effects of alcohol on testicular tissue, to an alcohol-associated decrease in sperm motility, and to an alcohol-related decrease in Vitamin A and zinc. Both Vitamin A and zinc are important in maintaining testicular tissue growth. In young females, alcohol abuse is associated with amenorrhea and anovulation in chronic...

Imaging Techniques Visualizing

THE LIVING BRAIN Images of the human BRAIN constructed using sophisticated computer systems have proven valuable for studying the effects of abused drugs. Nuclear medicine techniques, such as positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), allow noninvasive studies of brain function in human volunteers by the administration of small amounts of radioisotopes. These procedures allow visualization and quantification of biochemical processes in the living...

How Is Behavior Studied In The Laboratory

Human behavior is very complex, and it is often difficult to examine. Although scientists do conduct studies on people, many investigations of drug effects on behavior are carried out using animals. With animals, investigators have better control over the conditions in which the behavior occurs as well as better information about the organism's past experience with a particular drug. Although animal experiments provide a precise, controlled environment in which to investigate drug effects, they...

Risk Factors For Completed Suicide

Although in the general population there is considerable overlap between those who attempt suicide and those who complete suicide, substantial differences exist between these groups. For example, women are three times more likely than men to attempt suicide, while men are three times more likely to commit suicide. Despite these differences, suicide attempters are at higher risk of completed suicide. What, then, are the risk factors for completed suicide in substance abusers Depression....

Richard L Williams

Office of Drug Abuse Policy In March 1976, Congress authorized the creation of the Office of Drug Abuse Policy (ODAP) in the Executive Office of the President, with an annual budget of 1.2 million. President Jimmy Carter opened the office in March 1977 and appointed Dr. Peter G. Bourne as director. The director of ODAP was given wide responsibilities in assisting the president with all federal drug-abuse matters, including providing ''policy direction and coordination among the law enforcement,...

Repressive Policies

Drug addiction, particularly genuine addiction to the OPIATES, had already been demonized when Anslinger came on the scene Addicts had been labeled dope fiends in the public mind, and the illicit traffic had been attributed first to sinister German agents during World War I, then to terrifying Chinese tongs (secret societies). Clinics, set up to relieve the plight of addicts who had been cut off from their supplies by providing them with maintenance doses of HEROIN, were curbed by a series of...

Inhalants

The intoxicating and euphorigenic properties of nitrous oxide and ethyl ether were well known even before their potential as anesthetics was recognized. Physicians, nurses and other health-care professionals have been known to inhale anesthetic gases even though they have access to a wide variety of other drugs. Adolescents with restricted access to alcohol often resort to ''glue sniffing'' or the inhalation of vapors from substances with marked toxicity, such as gasoline, paint thinners, or...

Richard F Catalano Tracy W Harachi

CHLORAL HYDRATE Chloral hydrate is one of the oldest sedative agents still in use. It was made by the German chemist Liebig in 1832 and introduced into general use in 1869 as a substitute for Laudanum, an alcoholic solution of Opium. Chloral hydrate differs from the BARBITURATES in that it is a simple molecule composed of two carbon atoms, three hydrogen atoms, two oxygen atoms, and three chloride atoms. It is the famous (or infamous) substance added to alcohol to make a Mickey Finn, a drink...

Robert J Sokol

ASSET FORFEITURE Asset forfeiture is the involuntary relinquishment of money or property without compensation as a consequence of a commission of a crime. Forfeiture laws authorize prosecutors to file civil lawsuits asking a court for permission to take property from a criminal defendant that was either used in the crime or was the fruit of a criminal act. Since the 1970s, federal asset forfeiture laws have been used against drug dealers. By 2000, however, there were many in Congress and the...

Innovation

The tobacco industry adapts to changing circumstances in many ways. Product innovation is a key strategy. Since the early 1950s, the major changes in cigarette design have come in response to public-health concerns that cigarettes constitute a leading cause of illness and death (McGinnis, 1993 Slade, 1993). Most of these innovations have been variations on filters and so-called low-tar designs. Ballyhooed with multibillion-dollar advertising budgets, these innovations propped up cigarette...

Spontaneous Recovery

One question that has arisen in recent years is whether some alcoholics can achieve sobriety through spontaneous recovery. G. G. May (1988) uses the term ''deliverance'' for this phenomenon and defines it as ''healing that takes the form of empowerment that enables people to modify addictive behavior.'' Some researchers suggest that spontaneous remission and recovery is more common among alcoholics than was once believed, and that it is connected to growth and maturity in the course of the...

The Future

As commerce between countries has increased, so has the traffic in drugs. For centuries Asia has had trading partners for its tea, opium, and Cannabis. In return it has received shipments of other goods, including pharmaceuticals. Sometimes these exchanges have been within Asia, as in the early introduction of opium into China by Arabian traders, and the later commerce in opium between colonial India and China. Now trading is done on a worldwide scale, whether it is the legal trade with tea or...

Summary

Elderly people are the fastest-growing segment of world population and consume about 25 percent of all the medicines prescribed. Their capacity to handle medication differs from that of the young because of age-related changes in various systems of the body. Alcohol abuse among older people (as in any other) can lead to falls, fractures, and other similar medical complications. The addition of medications (prescription and over-the-counter) to alcohol drinking can lead to disastrous...

Talking With Your Students About Alcohol Twysaa

TWYSAA is concerned with influencing the students' drinking behavior not just in the present (during childhood and adolescence) but throughout their entire lives. The authors realized that, once children are no longer in school, their opportunities to receive in-depth education about alcohol would be very limited. TWYSAA teaches children how to estimate their own personal biological risk of developing ALCOHOLISM based on their family history and individual physiological factors. Students also...

The Anslinger Legacy

It is often asserted that Anslinger was forced out of the Federal Bureau of Narcotics by the Kennedy administration. Actually, he offered his resignation on his seventieth birthday, May 20, 1962, but was asked by the Kennedy administration to remain as acting commissioner until a successor could be found. He did so, and was pleased when his closest aide, Deputy Commissioner Henry L. Giordano, was appointed by President Kennedy as the new commissioner and promised that he would make no changes...