Selection Of Drugs To Be Tested

A number of different criteria can be applied to the drug(s) or category of drugs that should be tested or monitored. Drug availability, clinical effects and robustness of the analytical method(s) used for analysis are probably the most important. Availability. Prescription patterns of psycho-active and other drugs vary from place to place and country to country. Abuse of BENZODIAZEPINE nitrazepam is common in Europe but almost unknown in North America, since it is not sold here. The...

Lsd And Serotonin

LSD is known to affect many places in the brain where the body's neurotransmitter serotonin naturally has actions and effects, and the biochemical effects of LSD in the brain are mostly linked to those sites related to serotonin. LSD acts as a kind of impostor at receptors that recognize serotonin. LSD is like serotonin but different. Thus with LSD, the receptor signals other parts of the brain that there is too much serotonin, and these parts of the brain respond by tuning down cells that make...

Immunodeficiency Syndrome AIDS As of 1995

HIV infection is eventually fatal there is no permanently effective treatment for HIV infection. Large- scale vaccination studies began in the late 1980s, and have continued through the 1990s, focusing on some 27 different vaccines (Henderson, 1999). HIV has now been reported among IDUs in sixty countries, from all continents except Antarctica, and from both industrialized and developing nations. A disturbing facet of HIV infection among injecting drug users is the potential for the rapid...

Detoxification

During the initial treatment of polysubstance abuse and dependence, the primary goals include cessation of substance use and the establishment of a substance-free state. If necessary, detoxification occurs, as well as management of medical and psychiatric problems. Detoxification is the removal of the drug in a fashion that minimizes signs and symptoms of withdrawal. It can be pharmacological or drug free. Pharmacological methods for detoxification include (1) a slow decrease in the dose of the...

James E Smith Revised by Michael J Kuhar

NUTMEG Nutmeg, the common spice obtained from the aromatic seed of the tree Myristica fragrans (native to the Moluccas, the spice islands of the East Indies), has been used for centuries for food and medicinal purposes. It has some HALLUCINOGENIC activity when consumed in large amounts. Since nutmeg is found in most kitchens, including food-preparation areas found in prisons, it has been used by prisoners. Therefore, it has been removed from ready access in prisons to the tighter control of...

Alcoholsensitizing Agents

The most commonly used alcohol-sensitizing agent is disulfiram, which has been used in clinical practice since the 1950s to deter alcoholics from drinking. It is not an aversive drug in the strict sense of the word, since it is not used, as apomor-phine is used, to condition individuals to have an aversive response at the sight or smell of alcohol. Rather, its objective is to deter drinking by the threat of having a very unpleasant reaction if one does drink alcoholic beverages. Its severity...

Fall in Blood Alcohol Concentration BAC

These consist of insomnia, headache, and nausea. Usually no treatment is required and there are no serious consequences of this acute withdrawal. The withdrawal syndrome following chronic long-term alcohol consumption (usually months to years), however, is a more serious disorder. The natural history of alcohol dependence to the point of requesting or clearly requiring detoxification services is usually fifteen to twenty years. The average age of persons admitted to detoxification units is...

Processes Of Change Model

Historically, changing an addictive behavior was assumed to be the same as taking action. People with addictions were viewed as changing when they quit drinking, smoking, or abusing other substances. Action-oriented therapies were readily available but only a small percentage of addicted individuals entered therapy, only about 50 percent completed therapy and only 25 to 35 percent were successful in overcoming their addiction following therapy. Action-oriented therapies impacted on a small...

Sedatives Adverse Consequences Of Chronic Use Sedative

Drugs are also called hypnotics or Sedative-Hypnotics. They are sometimes referred to as ''minor tranquilizers'' or ''anxiolytics'' (antianxiety medications). Technically, a sedative decreases activity and calms, while a hypnotic produces drowsiness, allowing for the onset and maintenance of a state of Sleep similar to natural sleep and from which the sleeper may be easily awakened. The same drug used for sedation, pharmacologically induced sleep, and general systemic anesthesia may be seen to...

NickE Goeders

ANTIDEPRESSANT Antidepressants are a diverse group of drugs that demonstrate a capacity to produce improvement in the symptoms of clinical depression, and they are used to treat the abnormal mood states that characterize depressive illnesses. The word depression is used commonly to describe a state of sadness but health professionals use the term in a more restricted or defined manner to describe several psychiatric disorders characterized by abnormal moods. One of these is bipolar disorder, in...

On Selecting A Way To Stop Smoking

Smokers should be advised to take a long view of their efforts to stop smoking, understanding that if one method does not help them, they should try another, and another, until they have stopped smoking. Any one attempt to stop smoking can meet with poor success. With repeated attempts, the smoker may encounter some success. Also, repeated attempts give the smoker experience with assorted treatment techniques, so that the individual begins to learn for what helps and what does not help....

Appetite Suppressants

Appetite suppressants cover a range of compounds, from the decongestant phe-nylpropanolamine (often available without prescription), to powerful amphetamine analogues (chemical variants). Most are stimulant, although one, fenfluramine, is quite sedative. As with the amphetamines, patterns of use and abuse vary a great deal, from chronic daily ingestion of a therapeutic dose to binge or spree use of large quantities. As a general rule, the more amphetamine- like the appetite suppressant, the...

Active Ingredients

The major active ingredient of betel nut is arecoline, present in a concentration estimated to be 0.25 percent. The mixture also contains small amounts of pilocarpine and muscarine. These three ingredients are all natural plant products that act in the body in a manner similar to the normal brain NEUROTRANSMITTER acetylcholine. In the presence of calcium hydroxide, arecoline is also converted to another psychoactive substance, aredaidine. Chewing betel nut produces immediate effects that in...

Allergies To Alcohol

DRUGS In addition to ALCOHOL, OPIATES, and BARBITURATES, some street drugs have been reported to induce allergic reactions. These allergic phenomena are most frequently mediated by reactions of the immune system known as immediate hypersensitivity and delayed hypersensitivity. Immediate hypersensitivity is mediated by the serum protein immunoglobulin E(IgE), whereas delayed hypersensitivity is mediated by thymus-derived lymphocytes (the white blood cells called T cells). Immediate...

Unintended And Negative Consequences

Data do not exist to document in a comprehensive or detailed manner the extent to which the negative consequences of substance abuse exist worldwide, for specific nations (including the United States), or for given states or cities. Consequently, I have chosen to present mainly summary information that is based on the best evidence available rather than partial statistical data of questionable accuracy, which would soon be out of date. The following discussion is divided into four categories of...

Directtoconsumer Advertising

In the mid-1980s, two pharmaceutical companies began direct-to-consumer advertising (DTC). Pfizer led the way with its health-care series of ads to the general public. Merrell Dow was next, using DTC ads to inform the public that physicians had a new treatment to help smokers who wanted to stop smoking. When the company's new, nonsedating antihistamine became available, it used DTC ads to tell allergy sufferers that physicians now had a new treatment for allergies. The ads did not mention the...

Allergic Response To Alcohol

True anaphylactic or anaphylactoid reactions to ALCOHOL (ethanol) are rare. Most reactions to ingested alcoholic beverages are secondary to other chemicals in the beverage such as yeasts, metabisulfite, papain, or dyes. However, there are reports of true allergic reactions in which the offending agent was shown to be the ethanol itself. Symptoms of anaphylaxis have been reported to occur in several subjects following ingestion of beer and or wine, and these symptoms were reproduced in one...

Limitations Of Civil Commitment

Civil commitment helps get drug abusers into treatment and keeps the abusers in treatment for an extended length of time. Outcome studies have generally shown that the success of treatment is directly related to the amount of time spent in treatment and that long-term supervision upon return to the community, with objective monitoring (DRUG Testing), is an essential component of a successful program. Furthermore, civil commitment often makes treatment available before a crime is committed, and...

Opium Controls And Growth Of The Medical Profession

During the nineteenth century, opiates were the only effective way to relieve the symptoms of many physical ailments (most medicines used today, including aspirin, became available only in the twentieth century). Opium and its derivative Morphine (Britain was the world's leading manufacturer) were available in patent medicines, in alcoholic solutions, and in other commercial products. The emerging professions of pharmacist and medical physician with advanced training and specialized knowledge...

Recommended Treatment Policies

Since many Americans are still in need of treatment for drug abuse problems, rational treatment policies need to be established on the basis of our current knowledge regarding the extent of the problem and what interventions work. Such policies should address the following issues (Kleber, 1. Available treatment needs to be expanded. Although there are approximately 6 million individuals in need of drug treatment, the current system can treat less than 2 million a year. 2. Patients need to have...

Dependence

Physiological dependence on a drug is usually defined by a set of withdrawal symptoms that occur when steady use of the drug is discontinued. The withdrawal symptoms are typically the same for a given drug, and they follow a specific time course which ranges from about six to forty-eight hours, depending on the drug. The withdrawal symptoms may be rapidly reversed after one administration of the drug. Most of what is known about PCP dependence is from experimental studies with animals. There...

Pharmacological Treatments

Most smokers have quit on their own or, rather, tried to quit. Although 18 million try each year, less than 7 percent do so successfully. Most of the efforts were ''cold turkey,'' good for a start, but the least effective of all techniques. Long-term abstinence rates are low for people using this method. Treatment programs are helpful in increasing rates of success, and the availability of pharmacological interventions gives clinicians additional useful tools to help the smoker. The major...

Note On Smokeless Tobacco

To the extent that chewing tobacco and dipping snuff can cause nicotine to be delivered to the brain in sufficient doses, they present a similar risk of nicotine dependence in the regular user. These products may prove more difficult to treat than cigarette use, because they are sometimes viewed as less risky alternatives to cigarettes. One study quoted in a Surgeon General's report on smoking reported that 77 percent of youth thought that cigarette smoking was very harmful, but only 40 percent...

What The Future Holds

Methadone maintenance has demonstrated its effectiveness in reducing illicit drug use and facilitating the transition to a productive lifestyle. In the mid to late 1990s, two major scientific bodies reviewed the evidence on methadone maintenance and concluded it was an effective modality whose usefulness was greatly reduced by stigma and over regulation (National Consensus Development Panel on Effective Medical Treatment of Opiate Addiction, 1998 Rettig & Yarmolinsky, 1995). The documents...

Michael Tonry Revised by Frederick K Grittner

ROHYPNOL Known by a variety of street names such as roofies, roach, R-2, trip and fall, and rope or ''the date-rape drug,'' rohypnol is the trade name for the benzodiazepine Flunitrazepam, a sedative-hypnotic drug used medically in a number of countries. Rohypnol has recently become a widely abused drug in Sweden, Mexico, Italy, the United Kingdom, the United States, and South Africa, a trend made more troubling by the fact that many users regard it as relatively safe. Rohypnol, in fact, has...

Ethanol As A Drug

Ethanol differs from most other drugs in the way it is absorbed into the blood, metabolized in the liver, and how it enters the brain and produces its pharmacological effect. Ethanol (CH3CH2OH) has a molecular weight of 46.05, mixes with water in all proportions and carries only a weak charge this means that the molecules of ethanol easily pass through biological membranes, including the blood-brain barrier. After absorption into the portal blood, ethanol passes through the liver, where enzymes...

Michael J Kuhar Therapeutic Communities

Treatment Types Theraputic Communities TOBACCO DEPENDENCE In the United States as of 1999, there were about 57 million cigarette smokers-representing 25 percent of the adult population. Another 5 percent (men) use smokeless tobacco (chewing tobacco or snuff). Most (70-80 ) say they would like to quit. Unfortunately, they are dependent on (addicted to) nicotine, an alkaloid that makes it difficult to stop using tobacco. Most of them will have to try to quit several times before they are...

Precipitating Factors

It is popularly believed that alcohol use facilitates the commission of violent acts. Although there is an association between alcohol (and drug) use and aggression, it is not appropriate to attribute all family violence to substance abuse, and substance abuse does not inevitably result in violence (Hayes & Emshoff, 1993 Taylor & Chermack, 1993). Individual, familial and environmental factors are all implicated in family violence. Controlled studies in...

Daniel X Freedman R N Pechnick

DOPAMINE Dopamine (DA) is a catechol-amine according to its chemical structure and a neurotransmitter of special importance for drug addiction. DA is a decarboxylated form of dopa (an amino acid) found especially in the basal ganglia. Chemically known as 3,4 dihydroxyphenyl-ethylamine, DA arises from dihydroxphenylacetic acid (dopa) by the action of the enzyme dopa de-carboxylase. Dopamine-containing NEURONS (nerve cells) are widespread in the brain and the body. Small interneurons are found in...

Correlation Of Advertising To Consumption

In August 1993, the NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON ALCOHOL ABUSE AND ALCOHOLISM (NIAAA) had this to say about alcohol, media, and advertising The effects of mass communications in either promoting or preventing alcohol consumption and the problems associated with it are equivocal. Alcohol advertisements and broadcast media programming have been found to encourage a favorable view of alcohol use. Yet studies provide only modest support for the hypothesis that favorable presentations lead to positive...

Michigan

Bixby Medical Center Sage Center for Substance Abuse Treatment Psychological Consultants of BC Chemical Dependency Resources Downriver Community Services, Inc. Substance Abuse Services 555 Saint Clair River Drive Algonac, MI 48001 Allegan County Community Mental Health Services CSAS, Inc. Family Recovery Center of Allegan County 138 B Hubbard Street Allegan, MI 49010 Counseling Centers 15101 Southfield Road Allen Park, MI 48101 Dependency 1501 West Chisholm Street Alpena Hospital...

J

Jackson, Andrew, 814 JACS, 673, 674, 1139 Jaffe, Jerome H. on addiction, 401 on prevention, 493 SAODAP and, 818-819, 1126, 1278, 1284, 1301 Vietnam War drug use and, 1309-1310 Jails. See Prisons and jails Jamaica cannabis and, 575, 665, 1054 crop control in, 375, 665 as transit country, 1112 James, William, 358-359 James I (King of England), 872-874, 1091, 1100 alcohol use in, 145 methamphetamine use in, 119, 120, 490-491, 722 Stimulants Drug Law of 1951, 119 tea use in, 143, 874...

Group Therapy

Group therapy varies with each of the three phases in the psychotherapy of substance abusers achieving abstinence, early Sobriety, and late sobriety (achieving intimacy). Early Phase Achieving Abstinence. In the first phase of psychotherapy, the type of group utilized will depend on the treatment setting hospital, residential, intensive outpatient (also termed partial hospitalization), or limited outpatient. In hospital settings, educational groups are an essential part of the early treatment...

Alcohol And Analgesics

Aspirin is the active ingredient in many over-the-counter arthritis pain formulas and in numerous nonprescription combination headache-and-minor-pain products. The ability of aspirin to cause inflammation of the stomach, erosion of the GI tract, and GI bleeding is well recognized. Alcohol not only produces inflammation of the stomach but also increases the risk of GI bleeding caused by aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Bush, Sholtzhauer, andlmai, 1991). Elderly people at...

Alcohol And Other Drugs

Many elderly patients with adult-onset (Type II) diabetes take antidiabetic pills instead of insulin. When alcohol is taken along with pills such as sulfonylureas, it may cause dangerously low levels of blood sugar, especially in patients whose diet calls for decreasing the eating of carbohydrates. Another problem associated with this combination is an Antabuse-like reaction (fortunately quite rare and usually mild), causing nausea, vomiting, headache, blurred vision, and flushing. However,...

Warren K Bickel Louis A Giordano

BEHAVIORAL MODIFICATION AS A TREATMENT See Treatment Types Approaches Based on Behavioral Principles BEHAVIORAL TOLERANCE In everyday language, TOLERANCE implies the ability to withstand something. In pharmacology, the term tolerance is close to this meaning. To understand the technical meaning of the word, however, requires an understanding of the concept of the potency of a drug. A drug's potency is expressed in terms of the amount (the dose) of the drug needed to produce a certain effect. To...

Unwanted Side Effects

Side effects are reactions to drugs that are not therapeutic or helpful, and they are therefore unwanted. The most common side effects from taking benzodiazepine are drowsiness and tiredness, and they are most marked within the first few hours after large doses. Other complaints of this type include dizziness, headache, blurred vision, and feelings of unsteadiness. The elderly are particularly sensitive to tranquilizers and may become unsteady on their feet or even mentally confused. The...

Central Nervous System Stimulants

Central nervous system stimulants include caffeine, cocaine, and amphetamine, although the use and abuse of amphetamines and cocaine represent a much greater health risk, with deviation from social norms. Caffeine. Perhaps 80 percent of the world s population ingests caffeine in the form of TEA, Coffee, COLA-flavored drinks, and CHOCOLATE. In the central nervous system, caffeine decreases drowsiness and fatigue and produces a more rapid and clearer flow of thought. With higher doses, however,...

General Chemical Structure

Testosterone has a four-ring structure composed of nineteen carbon atoms. Accordingly, the carbon atoms are labeled by number from one to nineteen (see Figure 1). Many synthetic forms of testosterone are made by adding either an alkyl group or an ester to the seventeen-carbon atom. An alkyl group is a chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms. An ester is formed by reacting an acidic chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms to the -OH group on the seven-teen-carbon atom. In general, when an alkyl group is...

Zero Tolerance As A General Policy

The term zero tolerance has a broader application than the Reagan-Bush drug interdiction approach. Zero tolerance describes a perspective on drug use according to which it is maintained that the use of any amount of illicit drugs is harmful to the individual and society and that the goal of drug policy should be to prohibit any and all illicit drug use. According to the contrasting viewpoint, the simple use of drugs is distinguishable from problem drug use and although absence of all drug use...

Current And Future Directions

Three science-based treatment research protocols will start in 2000, including two behavioral therapies developed to enhance treatment outcomes, and one that will test a new medication for use in opiate detoxification. Several other protocols are currently being developed. All treatment components to be tested have been shown to be effective in controlled research environments. When complete, it is expected that the network will consist of twenty to thirty nodes consisting of regional research...

Frederick K Grittner Revised by Donna Craft

ASSOCIATION FOR MEDICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN SUBSTANCE ABUSE (AMERSA) The Association for Medical Education and Research in Substance Abuse (AMERSA) is a national organization of more than 300 medical and allied faculty, which was founded in 1976 for the promotion of education and research in the field of substance abuse. The organization was derived from an informal coalition of U.S. Federal Career Teachers in alcoholism and drug abuse these career teachers, one on the faculty of each of...

Jerome H Jaffe

OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) MEDICATION This class of medication can be purchased without a prescription. Which medications require prescriptions and which do not varies widely from country to country. Common examples of OTC medications in the United States include ANALGESICS (aspirin, Tylenol ), cough and cold products (Sinutab , Drixoral ), allergy medications (Benadryl , Tavist), gastrointestinal products (Maalox ), antidiarrheals (Imodium ), and nicotine replacements (e.g., Nicorette Gum,...

Peter Martin George Mathews

Dermatological With the exceptions of rashes and other skin conditions resulting from idiosyncratic or allergic reactions to drugs, most drug use complications involving skin damage result from the use of hypodermic needles or other means of drug injection that involve breaking the skin surface. There are three primary types of injection (1) subcutaneous, also known as ''skin-popping,'' wherein the needle is injected into or directly under the skin surface (2) intramuscular (IM), wherein the...

Datos

VULNERABILITY AS CAUSE OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE STRESS Department of Public Health Sciences University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada ASSESSMENT OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE DAST University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ TOBACCO INDUSTRY Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, Canada CANADA, DRUG AND ALCOHOL USE IN Haight-Ashbury Free Clinics Inc., San Francisco, CA COMPLICATIONS DERMATOLOGICAL COMPLICATIONS ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION ETHNIC ISSUES AND CULTURAL RELEVANCE IN TREATMENT...

Gender Differences In The Consequences Of Substance Abuse

It is generally presumed that alcohol and drug abuse will produce more deleterious consequences among women than among men. This expectation is grounded both in biological differences and in social-role expectations. From a biological standpoint, it is frequently noted that the lower ratio of water to total body weight in women causes them to metabolize alcohol and drugs differently than men. Even when body weight is controlled, given equivalent alcohol consumed, women pass more alcohol into...

Side Effects

Unlike disulfiram, carbimide does not have the potential side effect of liver damage. Carbimide, however, exerts antithyroid activity, which can be clinically significant in patients with preexisting hypothyroid disease. According to a 1999 Canadian monograph, other side effects of calcium carbimide include fatigue, skin rashes, ringing in the ears, mild depression, a need to urinate frequently, and impotence. The clinical significance of transient white blood cell increases remains unclear.

Strengths And Limitations Of The Nhsda

The major strengths of the NHSDA are its size, continuity, and national representativeness. The survey has a sample large enough to allow comparisons of drug-use prevalence among many different population subgroups each year and over time. The length of the questionnaire and amount of data collected provides a rich data base for examining the characteristics of drug abusers, the relationships of drug use with many demographic and other variables, and the changing patterns of drug use...

Tasc

TREATMENT, HISTORY OF, IN THE UNITED STATES TREATMENT PROGRAMS CENTERS ORGANIZATIONS AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE TREATMENT TYPES ART OF ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT TYPES THERAPEUTIC COMMUNITIES UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST ILLICIT TRAFFIC IN NARCOTIC DRUG AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES, 1988 U.S. GOVERNMENT AGENCIES IN DRUG LAW ENFORCEMENT AND SUPPLY CONTROL U.S. GOVERNMENT AGENCIES SPECIAL ACTION OFFICE FOR DRUG ABUSE PREVENTION (SAODAP) Department of Psychiatry University of Minnesota, Minneapolis,...

The Widmark Equation

Figure 2 gives examples of the concentration-time profiles of ethanol obtained from oral and intravenous administration of a moderate dose. The ratio of the dose administered (D) to the initial extrapolated concentration of ethanol in blood (C0) is the apparent volume of distribution (Vd) having dimensions L kg. This defines the relationship between the concentration of ethanol spread over the body weight (in kilograms, kg) and the concentration in the blood. Peak Blood Alcohol Concentration...

The Parent Movement The parent

Drug-prevention movement emerged in the latter half of the 1970s in response to the greatest escalation in drug use by children and adolescents in the history of the world. It originated with a number of people, who founded several different national organizations to lead the parent movement. In August 1976, an Atlanta mother, Marsha Keith Mannat Schuchard, Ph.D., and her husband, Emory University professor Ronald Schuchard, Ph.D., discovered at their eldest daughter's thirteenth birthday party...

Creativity And Drugs Accounts of

Alcohol and drug use to stimulate creativity are apocryphal and anecdotal. For example, Samuel Taylor Coleridge reportedly composed much of his unfinished poem Kubla Khan while in an opium dream. In ancient Greece, however, the Pythian priestesses of the oracle at Delphi inhaled medicinal fumes to facilitate revelatory trances as did the priests and peoples of most ancient societies. The institutionalized twentieth-century Native American Church continues to use the PEYOTE of their ancestors to...

Maryland

3101 Towanda Avenue Baltimore, MD 21215 Addict Referral and Counseling Center, Inc. (ARCC) 21 West 25 Street Baltimore, MD 21218 630 West Fayette Street Room 1-106 Baltimore, MD 21202 3655-A Old Court Road, Suite 12 Baltimore, MD 21208 9201 Philadelphia Road Baltimore, MD 21237 518 Eastern Boulevard Baltimore, MD 21212 Atlantic Coast Evaluation and Recovery Services 6229 North Charles Street Building A Baltimore American Indian Center, Inc. Substance Abuse and Prevention Program 113 South...

Nicotine Tolerance And Dependence

Nicotine is the pharmacologic agent that acts on the central nervous system (CNS). Its actions are seen in the brain where it operates on cholin-ergic receptors. The cigarette is a very fast and effective delivery system and effects occur rapidly after a single inhalation of tobacco smoke. Nicotine quickly crosses the blood-brain barrier and, once in the brain, interacts with brain receptors. Nicotine alters moods and acts on pleasure-seeking receptors in the brain, including dopamine and...

Operation Intercept Described by

Government sources as the largest peacetime search-and-seizure operation in U.S. history, Operation Intercept was launched along the United States Mexico border in September 1969. This unilateral program was instituted, ostensibly, to halt the flow of MARIJUANA, HEROIN, and other dangerous drugs from MEXICO into the United States. However, Intercept's true goal was not to interdict narcotics but to publicize the war on crime promoted by President Richard M. Nixon, who had taken office the...

Howard D Cappell Revised by Mary Carrlin

TOPS See Treatment Outcome Prospective Study TOUGHLOVE The generic term toughlove (or tough love) describes a style of caring applied in diverse interpersonal contexts whereby one person or group reasserts power over another for whom he or she is responsible. Claire Kowalski was the first person to use the term in published material, in 1976, to differentiate a respectful means of caring for elderly people that preserves self-mastery from a smothering style that promotes dependence. Since that...

Polydrug Abuse Pharmacotherapy

Although many individuals present with abuse or dependence upon a single Psychoactive Substance, increasing numbers of drug users are pre senting with dependencies upon two or more such substances. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV) and the International Classification of Diseases of the World Health Organization (ICD-10) define a condition called ''polydrug dependence'' or ''multiple drug dependence,'' in which there is dependence on three or...

Intratreatment And Extratreatment Support

The process of quitting smoking can be difficult, and support and encouragement can greatly help. In intra-treatment support, healthcare providers (e.g., physicians) improve quit-rates through support and encouragement (e.g., by recognizing the discomfort of quitting, underscoring that half of all smokers have quit for good, and noting that effective therapies exist). In addition, by providing training in acquiring extra-treatment support, the tobacco user can effectively obtain additional care...

James Van Wert Revised by Frederick K Grittner

MICHIGAN ALCOHOLISM SCREENING TEST (MAST) This is a brief self-report questionnaire designed to detect ALCOHOLISM (Selzer, 1971). It is widely used in clinical and research settings. The twenty-four scored items assess symptoms and consequences of ALCOHOL abuse, such as guilt about drinking blackouts DELIRIUM TREMENS loss of control family, social, employment, and legal problems following drinking bouts and help-seeking behaviors, such as attending Alcoholics Anonymous meetings or entering a...

Abuse And Misuse

In everyday English, abuse carries the connotations of improper, perverse, or corrupt use or practice, as in child abuse, or abuse of power. As applied to drugs, however, the term is difficult to define and carries different meanings in different contexts. In relation to therapeutic agents such as Benzodiazepines or Morphine, the term drug abuse is applied to their use for other than medical purposes, or in unnecessarily large quantities. With reference to licit but non-therapeutic substances...

Scott E Lukas Revised by Nancy Faerber

BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS Contemporary conceptualizations view drug dependence as a ''syndrome in which the use of a drug is given a much higher priority than other behaviors that once had higher value'' (Jaffe, 1990). Thus, in order to understand drug dependence, the complex interactions among reinforcers must be understood. Consider, for example, the frequently observed case of polydrug abuse. On some occasions, the drugs may be used simultaneously (e.g., cocaine and heroin), whereas on other...

Selfhelp And Annonymous Groups See Treatment Types

SENSATION AND PERCEPTION AND EFFECTS OF DRUGS Every behavior in which an organism engages involves information from the primary senses, such as vision, hearing (audition), and touch. A number of drugs of abuse alter sensory information. Mind-altering drugs can also influence perception of time, thinking, behavior, and mood. Often abusers of these drugs experience severe depression, anxiety, paranoia, confusion, and terror. Naturally occurring drugs, such as Mescaline from the Peyote cactus,...

Missouri

1415 Ashley Road Boonville, MO 65233 Family Counseling Center of Missouri, Inc. Outpatient Clinic North Central Missouri Mental Health Center Preferred Family Healthcare Inc Brookfield Office Family Guidance Center for Behavioral Healthcare 502 Northland Plaza Cameron, MO 64429 Hannibal Council on Alcohol and Drug Abuse Family Counseling Center, Inc. Women's CSTAR 1210 West Highway 84 Caruthersville, MO 63830 North Central Missouri Mental Health Center 705 Webster Street Chillicothe, MO 64601...

Cocaine Anonymous

Cocaine Anonymous (CA) is a community-based self-help group organization modeled after Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). The basic principles are the same as AA's. The program is based on the ''disease'' model of substance dependence. Achievement and maintenance of abstinence from cocaine is presumed to be facilitated by following the Twelve Steps of CA (which are based on the original Twelve Steps of AA). CA is available to anyone who expresses a desire to stop using cocaine and all other...

Rhode Island Johnston

985 Plainfield Street Johnston, RI 02919 Agency 1126 Hartford Avenue Johnston, RI 02919-7130 Child and Family Services of Newport Newport County Community Mental Health Center 127 Johnnycake Hill Road Middletown, RI 02842 268 Kingstown Road Narragansett, RI 02882 SSTAR of Rhode Island Residential Alcohol Drug Detox 1950 Tower Hill Road North Kingstown, RI 02852 Marathon, Inc. The Lodge at Wallum Lake 2198 Wallum Lake Road Pascoag, RI 02859 2198 Wallum Lake Road Pascoag, RI 02859 101 Bacon...

See Elimination of Drug Addiction and Alcoholism as Qualifying Impairments in Social Security Disability Programs

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. For 60 years after the enactment of the Social Security Act of 1935, America's cash assistance program for impoverished families was Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC Aid to Dependent Children until 1961, when a parental or caretaker grant was added). As the result of liberal court rulings in the 1960s and the separation of casework from the financial administration of recipients' grants in 1972, AFDC became substantially free of the...

Sobriety And Behavioral Addictions

One complication of the term sobriety has been the difficulty of defining it in the context of the so-called process addictions'' or behavioral addictions,'' terms that have been used to distinguish addictions to such activities or behaviors as gambling, shopping, overeating, sexual acting-out, etc. from substance addictions in the strict sense. Unlike alcoholics and drug abusers, people with behavioral addictions cannot always define sobriety'' as simple abstinence. A compulsive overeater, for...

Gavril W Pasternak

METHADONE MAINTENANCE PROGRAMS The history of methadone treatment offers a striking example of the benefits and limits of research findings on public attitudes and policies for methadone maintenance treatment. To understand methadone maintenance treatment, it is necessary to appreciate the profound stigma attached to both patients and treatment providers. This establishes the context for understanding how a modality with the most extensive research base in the addiction treatment field...

Kansas

Northeast Kansas Mental Health Center 1301 North 2nd Street Atchison, KS 66002 Valley Hope at Augusta Medical Complex 2101 Dearborn Street Augusta, KS 67010 Beloit Juvenile Correctional Facility 1720 North Hersey Street Beloit, KS 67420 12215 State Avenue Bonner Springs, KS 66012 Citizens Medical Center Substance Abuse Services 100 East College Drive Colby, KS 67701 Thomas County Council on Alcohol Drug Abuse, Inc. 775 East College Drive Colby, KS 67701 501 Central Avenue Columbus, KS 66725...

Scott E Lukas Revised by Rebecca Marlow Ferguson

CHOCOLATE An ingredient of many popular treats candies, sweets, baked goods, soft drinks, hot drinks, ice cream, and other frozen desserts. It is prepared, often as a paste, from the roasted crushed seeds (called cocoa beans) of the small South American cacao tree called Theobroma cacao (this is not the shrub known as the COCA PLANT, which produces COCAINE, Erythroxylon coca). The cacao tree has small yellowish flowers, followed by fleshy yellow pods with many seeds. The dried, partly fermented...

Summary

Drinking alcohol and involvement in criminal behavior frequently occur together. Some of the time alcohol has a causal role in crime, but often it is merely present. Drinking is most likely to be relevant causally to expressive interpersonal violence including family violence. Drinking can increase the risk of being victimized as well. Drinking may also sometimes help account for the commission of crimes to obtain money to support the habit, but alcohol is not a major factor in the occurrence...

Skin Damage And Drugs

SLANG AND JARGON Slang terms in the drug subculture are constantly changing, as its ethnic, social, and demographic composition changes and as new illicit drugs roll in and roll out with the tides of fashion, including geographical variations. Yet certain terms show a remarkable durability such as some of those for heroin (trademarked Heroin in Germany, 1898) a narcotic that has been a staple street anodyne since the early 1900s. Other drug-related terms have come into the mainstream to become...

Idaho

583 West Sexton Street Blackfoot, ID 83221 Aerie Addictions Recovery Center, Inc. 9600 West Brookside Lane Boise, ID 83703 Boise Center for Recovery Outpatient Services Crossroads Counseling Services 1010 North Orchard Street Suite 2 First Step for Women First Step for Men 1818 West State Street Boise, ID 83702 2503 West State Street Boise, ID 83702 710 North 6th Street Boise, ID 83706 Saint Alphonsus Addiction Recovery Center Veterans' Affairs Medical Center Substance Abuse Treatment Programs...

Persistence Of The Moral Perspective

Despite the preponderance of medical opinion that some drug and alcohol users have a disorder a diminished capacity to choose freely whether or not to use a particular substance the moral models retain some vitality. In 1882, when the disease concept was first gaining momentum, the Reverend J. E. Todd wrote an essay entitled ''Drunkenness a Vice, Not a Disease.'' In the late 1980s, the disease concept critics Fingarette and Peele put forth almost precisely the same thesis. Peele has argued that...

Carcinogenesis

The likelihood of a substance to cause cancer is called carcinogenicity this is determined in several ways. The first is to see if cells grown in vitro (in a test tube) with the potential carcinogen develop cell-structure abnormalities in the new-grown cells. The second is to see if the substance will result in cancers in animals. The third is to look at the clinical course of a disease in a human patient. Finally, the outcomes in a group of people exposed to the substance will be compared to...

Harrison M Trice

Therapeutic Communities Therapeutic communities (TCs) are drug-free residential treatment facilities for drug and or alcohol addiction. TCs emerged in the 1960s as a self-help alternative to the conventional medical and psychiatric approaches being used at that time. Most traditional TCs have similar features, including their organizational structure, staffing patterns, perspectives, rehabilitative regimes, and a twelve- to eighteen-month duration of stay. They differ greatly, however, in size...

Dace S Svikis Roy W Pickens

Psychoanalytic Perspective Increased vulnerability to Alcohol and drugs is related to the coming together of a number of influences, each of which is itself of varying strength. Our biologies, our individual social and cultural settings and backgrounds, our personal idiosyncratic life experiences, and the persons we become as a result of all these may contribute to the likelihood of our using drugs and then of our continuing to use them. We are neither vulnerable nor invulnerable to using drugs...

Opioid Dependence Course Of The Disorder Over Time Opioid

Dependence is the modern diagnostic term for narcotic addiction, but the older term is still often used. This entry, however, uses the modern term. The term opioid refers to natural and synthetic substances that have morphine-like effects. The term opiate is generally used in a more restricted sense to refer to MORPHINE, HEROIN, CODEINE, and similar drugs derived from OPIUM. OPIOID dependence is defined as a cluster of symptoms related to continued use of an opioid drug. One of the prominent...

Myroslava Romach Karen Parker

MYTHS ABOUT ADDICTION AND ITS TREATMENT As of the year 2000, many medical facts about the causes of addiction, its nature, the best ways to treat its symptoms, and the possibility of devising a full, permanent cure remain unknown. However, research has already established that the myths listed below are false. Unfortunately, these common myths cause the general public and even many physicians to be needlessly unsympathetic to addicts. Myth Addiction is an acute condition, like a broken leg or...

Marie Ragghianti Revised by Carl Leukefeld

COFFEE Coffee is the world's most common source of CAFFEINE, providing a little more than half of all caffeine consumed daily. In the United States, coffee is usually a beverage made by percolation or infusion from the roasted and ground or pounded seeds of the coffee tree (genus Coffea), a large evergreen shrub or small tree, which was native to Africa but now is grown widely in warm regions for commercial crops. Caffeine from coffee accounts for an estimated 125 milligrams of the 211...

JiL

Med-Low Med-High Religious Commitment smokers. Between 1989 and 1999, the proportion of cigarette users and marijuana users rose somewhat for year-to-year changes in substance use, see Johnston et al. (2000). For the present purposes, the most important finding in Figure 1 is that religion was linked to drug use at all three times, although the relationships appear a bit more dramatic during periods of heavier use. Because high religious commitment is associated with low likelihood of drug use,...

Money Laundering

Treasury Department agencies that play a role in controlling illicit drugs include the U.S. Customs Service, which stops and seizes illegal drugs as well as other contraband being smuggled into the United States The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (BATF), which investigates violations of laws dealing with weapons, particularly federal drug offenses invoking weapons and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), which assists in financial investigations, particularly money laundering. Two...

Urine Testing Methods

Urine is the most commonly used fluid for drug screening. The methods most commonly used in toxicology laboratories are immunoassay, chromatographic and chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. These methods vary considerably with respect to their sensitivity and reliability. Thin-layer chromatography is least expensive, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC MS), which is considered as nearly perfect or ''gold standard'', is the most expensive. Table 2 summarizes the...

Drug Abuse Policy Office Dapo Office Of Policy Development

Similar in organization and responsibilities to the preceding DPO, the Drug Abuse Policy Office (DAPO) was the principal EOP drug-abuse staff during the eight years of President Ronald W. Reagan's administration. In 1981, DAPO was established within the White House Office of Policy Development. Directors. Carlton E. Turner, 1981-1986 (also Special Assistant to the President promoted in March 1985 to Deputy assistant to the President). Dr. Donald Ian MacDonald, 1987-1989, (Special Assistant to...

Iatrogenic Addiction Nonopioids See Prescription Drug Abuse

IBOGAINE The roots of the shrub Tabernanthe iboga first aroused pharmacological interest in 1864 when a French naval surgeon brought some back from Gabon, West Africa. The root was eaten by various Gabonese tribes as part of initiation ceremonies of puberty and was said to produce intoxication, visions, and a reduced need for sleep. An active alkaloid, ibogaine (C20 H26 N2 O), was isolated in 1901 from the roots, bark, and leaves of Tabernanthe iboga. In the early 1900s, some medical...

Substance Abuse And Family Life

It has been estimated that abuse is associated with psychological disorders in about 20 percent of cases (Stark & Flitcraft, 1988). The family plays an important role in factors relating to the development, maintenance, and treatment of substance abuse. The fundamental significance of families as dynamic systems has been recognized and studied (Wolin et al., 1980). Today, treatment plans for substance abusers typically involve family members or significant others. The disorganizing impact of...

Centerstone Mental Health Centers Luton Mental Health Services 1921 Ransom Place Nashville TN 37217

Cumberland Heights Alcohol and Drug Treatment New Avenues Save 5115 Harding Place Nashville, TN 37201 Women's Residence 1017 Burchwood Avenue Nashville, TN 37216 Lloyd C. Elam Mental Health Center Meharry Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program 1005 Dr. David B. Todd, Jr., Boulevard Metro Health Department Chemical Dependency Program 526 8th Avenue South Nashville, TN 37203 129 7th Avenue South Nashville, TN 37203 Parthenon Pavilion CMC Dual Treatment Program 2401 Murphy Avenue Nashville, TN 37203 1601...

American Indians And Drug

AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ADDICTION MEDICINE (ASAM) The American Society of Addiction Medicine (4601 North Park Avenue, Arcade Suite 101, Chevy Chase, MD 20815 301656-3920 http www.asam.org) is a not-forprofit organization of physicians in all medical specialties and subspecialties who devote a significant part of their practice to treating patients addicted to, or having problems with, alcohol, nicotine, and other drugs. The society strives to have addiction recognized as a medical disorder by...

Ed50

PHARMACOLOGY PSYCHOACTIVE RECEPTOR DRUG PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY PLANTS, DRUGS, FROM Department of Neuro-Science and Psychiatry Brain Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL CLONIDINE National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD RESEARCH, ANIMAL MODEL CONDITIONED WITHDRAWAL Department of Psychiatry Toronto Hospital, Toronto, Canada BULIMIA NERVOSA Crime and Justice Research Institute Philadelphia, PA DRUG COURTS Kroll Associates, Larchmont, NY MONEY LAUNDERING...

Arizona

Mental Health Center Substance Abuse Services Mohave Mental Health Clinic Outpatient and Day Treatment Camp Verde Yavapai Apache Alcohol Substance Abuse Program Behavioral Health Agency of Central Arizona 120 West Main Street Casa Grande, AZ 85222-4820 120 West Main Street Casa Grande, AZ 85222 PGBHA Helping Associates Inc. 1901 North Trekell Road, Suite A Casa Grande, AZ 85222 100 West Boston Street, Suite 5 Chandler, AZ 85224 Chandler Valley Hope and Drug Treatment Center 501 North...

Nicotine And Tobacco

TOBACCO is a tall, herbaceous plant, the leaves of which are harvested, cured, and rolled into cigars, shredded for use in cigarettes and pipes, and processed for chewing or snuff. Tobacco has become a commercial crop in almost all tropical countries as Some of the Plants Used in Making Drugs and Alcoholic Beverages. Some of the Plants Used in Making Drugs and Alcoholic Beverages. well as in many temperate ones. The main source of commercial tobacco is Nicotiana tabacum, although Nicotiana...

Nevada

Carson City Community Counseling Center 120 North Harbin Avenue Carson City, NV 89701 Ruby View Counseling Center Outpatient 401 Railroad Street, Suite 301 Elko, NV 89801 Residential Treatment 3740 East Idaho Street Elko, NV 89801 Teen Discovery 1297 Idaho Street Elko, NV 89801 Bristlecone Counseling Service Outpatient Churchill Council Alcohol and Drug Treatment 165 North Carson Street Fallon, NV 89406 Bridge Counseling Associates Outpatient 1701 West Charleston Boulevard Las Vegas, NV 89104...

Wiklers Pharmacologic Theory Of Drug Addiction Abraham

Wikler (died 1981) was one of the first researchers who, in the late 1940s, strongly advocated the idea that drug abuse and relapse following treatment are influenced by basic learning processes. Early in his career, Wikler became interested in reports from relapsed heroin addicts that despite being free of withdrawal symptoms during treatment and upon discharge, they experienced withdrawal symptoms and craving when they returned to their drug-use environments and that these feelings were...

Linda Dykstra

PAIN, DRUGS USED FOR Pain is a sensation unique to an individual. Its perception depends on the injury involved and the situation or context. A bruise obtained in a football game may not be appreciated at the time of the injury, yet in other circumstances the pain from a minor injury, such as stubbing a toe, may be overwhelming. The extent of the injury does not predict the amount of pain experienced it is this wide variability that makes the treatment of pain difficult. Within the brain, there...

Illinois

891 South Route 53 Addison, IL 60101 Southeastern Edwards Family Counseling Center DUI Program 254 South 5th Street Albion, IL 62806 1107 South Main Street Algonquin, IL 60102 YMCA of Metropolitan Chicago Adolescent Outpatient Treatment 3801 West 127th Street Alsip, IL 60803 Chestnut Health Systems, Inc. Outpatient Program Community Counseling Center of Northern Madison County, Inc. Saint Clare's Hospital Chemical Dependency Treatment Center 800 North Main Street Anna, IL 62906 Mercy Counseling...

Ethyl Chloride

This is a local anesthetic, CNS depressant, and refrigerant that has been subject to abuse by inhalation. Ethyl chloride has a very high vapor pressure, and spraying it directly into the mouth may freeze the tissues of the throat and cause fatal la-ryngospasm (contraction of the muscles of the throat and larynx), and the shutoff of air to the lungs. Ethyl chloride has been sold in canisters and spray cans (e.g., Black Jack). A related chemical, methyl chloride, has similar effects and was used...

Using The Tactics Of Terror

The second aspect covered under the rubric of narcoterrorism has been the drug traffickers' use of the tactics of political terrorism such as the car bomb, kidnapping, and selective assassination to undermine the resolve of various governments at the highest levels to fight the drug trade. Traffickers usually use members of their own organization to carry out such attacks. Sometimes, however, traffickers have subcontracted to guerrillas. In late 1990, Colombia's Pablo Escobar used the ELN to...

National Council On Alcoholism And Drug Dependence Ncadd

This is the ninth largest voluntary health organization in the United States and the country's major public advocate for the prevention and treatment of alcohol and other drug problems. Working through hundreds of local affiliate councils, state councils, and its New York City and Washington offices, NCADD sponsors prevention and education programs, information and referral services, scientific and clinical consensus development, public policy advocacy, and other related activities. NCADD was...

Conclusions

Evidence that showed that raising the drinking age to 21 reduced deaths and injuries in car crashes was a major factor in the debate about the drinking age. Other arguments were also heard, such as Is it unconstitutional to discriminate solely on the basis of age Federal courts have ruled that the drinking age is not discriminatory, because (1) drinking is not a fundamental right, (2) age is not an inherently suspect criterion for discrimination, (3) and the higher drinking age has a ''rational...

Multiple Contributing Causative Factors

As the twenty first century begins, there is not widespread agreement as to the exact cause(s) of pathological gambling. However, as with many other disorders, a broad model is emerging which includes four major areas of risk factors for developing this disorder biological, social, psychological, and spiritual (Rugle, 1993). Biological. Genetic research in the late 1990s has provided preliminary evidence of a genetic link among pathological gambling and other addictive and impulse control...