Group Therapy

Group therapy varies with each of the three phases in the psychotherapy of substance abusers achieving abstinence, early Sobriety, and late sobriety (achieving intimacy). Early Phase Achieving Abstinence. In the first phase of psychotherapy, the type of group utilized will depend on the treatment setting hospital, residential, intensive outpatient (also termed partial hospitalization), or limited outpatient. In hospital settings, educational groups are an essential part of the early treatment...

Alcohol And Analgesics

Aspirin is the active ingredient in many over-the-counter arthritis pain formulas and in numerous nonprescription combination headache-and-minor-pain products. The ability of aspirin to cause inflammation of the stomach, erosion of the GI tract, and GI bleeding is well recognized. Alcohol not only produces inflammation of the stomach but also increases the risk of GI bleeding caused by aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Bush, Sholtzhauer, andlmai, 1991). Elderly people at...

Alcohol And Other Drugs

Many elderly patients with adult-onset (Type II) diabetes take antidiabetic pills instead of insulin. When alcohol is taken along with pills such as sulfonylureas, it may cause dangerously low levels of blood sugar, especially in patients whose diet calls for decreasing the eating of carbohydrates. Another problem associated with this combination is an Antabuse-like reaction (fortunately quite rare and usually mild), causing nausea, vomiting, headache, blurred vision, and flushing. However,...

Warren K Bickel Louis A Giordano

BEHAVIORAL MODIFICATION AS A TREATMENT See Treatment Types Approaches Based on Behavioral Principles BEHAVIORAL TOLERANCE In everyday language, TOLERANCE implies the ability to withstand something. In pharmacology, the term tolerance is close to this meaning. To understand the technical meaning of the word, however, requires an understanding of the concept of the potency of a drug. A drug's potency is expressed in terms of the amount (the dose) of the drug needed to produce a certain effect. To...

Unwanted Side Effects

Side effects are reactions to drugs that are not therapeutic or helpful, and they are therefore unwanted. The most common side effects from taking benzodiazepine are drowsiness and tiredness, and they are most marked within the first few hours after large doses. Other complaints of this type include dizziness, headache, blurred vision, and feelings of unsteadiness. The elderly are particularly sensitive to tranquilizers and may become unsteady on their feet or even mentally confused. The...

Central Nervous System Stimulants

Central nervous system stimulants include caffeine, cocaine, and amphetamine, although the use and abuse of amphetamines and cocaine represent a much greater health risk, with deviation from social norms. Caffeine. Perhaps 80 percent of the world s population ingests caffeine in the form of TEA, Coffee, COLA-flavored drinks, and CHOCOLATE. In the central nervous system, caffeine decreases drowsiness and fatigue and produces a more rapid and clearer flow of thought. With higher doses, however,...

General Chemical Structure

Testosterone has a four-ring structure composed of nineteen carbon atoms. Accordingly, the carbon atoms are labeled by number from one to nineteen (see Figure 1). Many synthetic forms of testosterone are made by adding either an alkyl group or an ester to the seventeen-carbon atom. An alkyl group is a chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms. An ester is formed by reacting an acidic chain of carbon and hydrogen atoms to the -OH group on the seven-teen-carbon atom. In general, when an alkyl group is...

Zero Tolerance As A General Policy

The term zero tolerance has a broader application than the Reagan-Bush drug interdiction approach. Zero tolerance describes a perspective on drug use according to which it is maintained that the use of any amount of illicit drugs is harmful to the individual and society and that the goal of drug policy should be to prohibit any and all illicit drug use. According to the contrasting viewpoint, the simple use of drugs is distinguishable from problem drug use and although absence of all drug use...

Current And Future Directions

Three science-based treatment research protocols will start in 2000, including two behavioral therapies developed to enhance treatment outcomes, and one that will test a new medication for use in opiate detoxification. Several other protocols are currently being developed. All treatment components to be tested have been shown to be effective in controlled research environments. When complete, it is expected that the network will consist of twenty to thirty nodes consisting of regional research...

Frederick K Grittner Revised by Donna Craft

ASSOCIATION FOR MEDICAL EDUCATION AND RESEARCH IN SUBSTANCE ABUSE (AMERSA) The Association for Medical Education and Research in Substance Abuse (AMERSA) is a national organization of more than 300 medical and allied faculty, which was founded in 1976 for the promotion of education and research in the field of substance abuse. The organization was derived from an informal coalition of U.S. Federal Career Teachers in alcoholism and drug abuse these career teachers, one on the faculty of each of...

Jerome H Jaffe

OVER-THE-COUNTER (OTC) MEDICATION This class of medication can be purchased without a prescription. Which medications require prescriptions and which do not varies widely from country to country. Common examples of OTC medications in the United States include ANALGESICS (aspirin, Tylenol ), cough and cold products (Sinutab , Drixoral ), allergy medications (Benadryl , Tavist), gastrointestinal products (Maalox ), antidiarrheals (Imodium ), and nicotine replacements (e.g., Nicorette Gum,...

Peter Martin George Mathews

Dermatological With the exceptions of rashes and other skin conditions resulting from idiosyncratic or allergic reactions to drugs, most drug use complications involving skin damage result from the use of hypodermic needles or other means of drug injection that involve breaking the skin surface. There are three primary types of injection (1) subcutaneous, also known as ''skin-popping,'' wherein the needle is injected into or directly under the skin surface (2) intramuscular (IM), wherein the...

Datos

VULNERABILITY AS CAUSE OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE STRESS Department of Public Health Sciences University of Toronto, Ontario, Canada ASSESSMENT OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE DAST University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ TOBACCO INDUSTRY Addiction Research Foundation, Toronto, Canada CANADA, DRUG AND ALCOHOL USE IN Haight-Ashbury Free Clinics Inc., San Francisco, CA COMPLICATIONS DERMATOLOGICAL COMPLICATIONS ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION ETHNIC ISSUES AND CULTURAL RELEVANCE IN TREATMENT...

Gender Differences In The Consequences Of Substance Abuse

It is generally presumed that alcohol and drug abuse will produce more deleterious consequences among women than among men. This expectation is grounded both in biological differences and in social-role expectations. From a biological standpoint, it is frequently noted that the lower ratio of water to total body weight in women causes them to metabolize alcohol and drugs differently than men. Even when body weight is controlled, given equivalent alcohol consumed, women pass more alcohol into...

Side Effects

Unlike disulfiram, carbimide does not have the potential side effect of liver damage. Carbimide, however, exerts antithyroid activity, which can be clinically significant in patients with preexisting hypothyroid disease. According to a 1999 Canadian monograph, other side effects of calcium carbimide include fatigue, skin rashes, ringing in the ears, mild depression, a need to urinate frequently, and impotence. The clinical significance of transient white blood cell increases remains unclear.

Strengths And Limitations Of The Nhsda

The major strengths of the NHSDA are its size, continuity, and national representativeness. The survey has a sample large enough to allow comparisons of drug-use prevalence among many different population subgroups each year and over time. The length of the questionnaire and amount of data collected provides a rich data base for examining the characteristics of drug abusers, the relationships of drug use with many demographic and other variables, and the changing patterns of drug use...

Tasc

TREATMENT, HISTORY OF, IN THE UNITED STATES TREATMENT PROGRAMS CENTERS ORGANIZATIONS AN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE TREATMENT TYPES ART OF ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT TYPES THERAPEUTIC COMMUNITIES UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION AGAINST ILLICIT TRAFFIC IN NARCOTIC DRUG AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES, 1988 U.S. GOVERNMENT AGENCIES IN DRUG LAW ENFORCEMENT AND SUPPLY CONTROL U.S. GOVERNMENT AGENCIES SPECIAL ACTION OFFICE FOR DRUG ABUSE PREVENTION (SAODAP) Department of Psychiatry University of Minnesota, Minneapolis,...

The Widmark Equation

Figure 2 gives examples of the concentration-time profiles of ethanol obtained from oral and intravenous administration of a moderate dose. The ratio of the dose administered (D) to the initial extrapolated concentration of ethanol in blood (C0) is the apparent volume of distribution (Vd) having dimensions L kg. This defines the relationship between the concentration of ethanol spread over the body weight (in kilograms, kg) and the concentration in the blood. Peak Blood Alcohol Concentration...

The Parent Movement The parent

Drug-prevention movement emerged in the latter half of the 1970s in response to the greatest escalation in drug use by children and adolescents in the history of the world. It originated with a number of people, who founded several different national organizations to lead the parent movement. In August 1976, an Atlanta mother, Marsha Keith Mannat Schuchard, Ph.D., and her husband, Emory University professor Ronald Schuchard, Ph.D., discovered at their eldest daughter's thirteenth birthday party...

Creativity And Drugs Accounts of

Alcohol and drug use to stimulate creativity are apocryphal and anecdotal. For example, Samuel Taylor Coleridge reportedly composed much of his unfinished poem Kubla Khan while in an opium dream. In ancient Greece, however, the Pythian priestesses of the oracle at Delphi inhaled medicinal fumes to facilitate revelatory trances as did the priests and peoples of most ancient societies. The institutionalized twentieth-century Native American Church continues to use the PEYOTE of their ancestors to...

Maryland

3101 Towanda Avenue Baltimore, MD 21215 Addict Referral and Counseling Center, Inc. (ARCC) 21 West 25 Street Baltimore, MD 21218 630 West Fayette Street Room 1-106 Baltimore, MD 21202 3655-A Old Court Road, Suite 12 Baltimore, MD 21208 9201 Philadelphia Road Baltimore, MD 21237 518 Eastern Boulevard Baltimore, MD 21212 Atlantic Coast Evaluation and Recovery Services 6229 North Charles Street Building A Baltimore American Indian Center, Inc. Substance Abuse and Prevention Program 113 South...

Nicotine Tolerance And Dependence

Nicotine is the pharmacologic agent that acts on the central nervous system (CNS). Its actions are seen in the brain where it operates on cholin-ergic receptors. The cigarette is a very fast and effective delivery system and effects occur rapidly after a single inhalation of tobacco smoke. Nicotine quickly crosses the blood-brain barrier and, once in the brain, interacts with brain receptors. Nicotine alters moods and acts on pleasure-seeking receptors in the brain, including dopamine and...

Operation Intercept Described by

Government sources as the largest peacetime search-and-seizure operation in U.S. history, Operation Intercept was launched along the United States Mexico border in September 1969. This unilateral program was instituted, ostensibly, to halt the flow of MARIJUANA, HEROIN, and other dangerous drugs from MEXICO into the United States. However, Intercept's true goal was not to interdict narcotics but to publicize the war on crime promoted by President Richard M. Nixon, who had taken office the...

Howard D Cappell Revised by Mary Carrlin

TOPS See Treatment Outcome Prospective Study TOUGHLOVE The generic term toughlove (or tough love) describes a style of caring applied in diverse interpersonal contexts whereby one person or group reasserts power over another for whom he or she is responsible. Claire Kowalski was the first person to use the term in published material, in 1976, to differentiate a respectful means of caring for elderly people that preserves self-mastery from a smothering style that promotes dependence. Since that...

Polydrug Abuse Pharmacotherapy

Although many individuals present with abuse or dependence upon a single Psychoactive Substance, increasing numbers of drug users are pre senting with dependencies upon two or more such substances. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV) and the International Classification of Diseases of the World Health Organization (ICD-10) define a condition called ''polydrug dependence'' or ''multiple drug dependence,'' in which there is dependence on three or...

Intratreatment And Extratreatment Support

The process of quitting smoking can be difficult, and support and encouragement can greatly help. In intra-treatment support, healthcare providers (e.g., physicians) improve quit-rates through support and encouragement (e.g., by recognizing the discomfort of quitting, underscoring that half of all smokers have quit for good, and noting that effective therapies exist). In addition, by providing training in acquiring extra-treatment support, the tobacco user can effectively obtain additional care...

James Van Wert Revised by Frederick K Grittner

MICHIGAN ALCOHOLISM SCREENING TEST (MAST) This is a brief self-report questionnaire designed to detect ALCOHOLISM (Selzer, 1971). It is widely used in clinical and research settings. The twenty-four scored items assess symptoms and consequences of ALCOHOL abuse, such as guilt about drinking blackouts DELIRIUM TREMENS loss of control family, social, employment, and legal problems following drinking bouts and help-seeking behaviors, such as attending Alcoholics Anonymous meetings or entering a...

Abuse And Misuse

In everyday English, abuse carries the connotations of improper, perverse, or corrupt use or practice, as in child abuse, or abuse of power. As applied to drugs, however, the term is difficult to define and carries different meanings in different contexts. In relation to therapeutic agents such as Benzodiazepines or Morphine, the term drug abuse is applied to their use for other than medical purposes, or in unnecessarily large quantities. With reference to licit but non-therapeutic substances...

Scott E Lukas Revised by Nancy Faerber

BEHAVIORAL ECONOMICS Contemporary conceptualizations view drug dependence as a ''syndrome in which the use of a drug is given a much higher priority than other behaviors that once had higher value'' (Jaffe, 1990). Thus, in order to understand drug dependence, the complex interactions among reinforcers must be understood. Consider, for example, the frequently observed case of polydrug abuse. On some occasions, the drugs may be used simultaneously (e.g., cocaine and heroin), whereas on other...

Selfhelp And Annonymous Groups See Treatment Types

SENSATION AND PERCEPTION AND EFFECTS OF DRUGS Every behavior in which an organism engages involves information from the primary senses, such as vision, hearing (audition), and touch. A number of drugs of abuse alter sensory information. Mind-altering drugs can also influence perception of time, thinking, behavior, and mood. Often abusers of these drugs experience severe depression, anxiety, paranoia, confusion, and terror. Naturally occurring drugs, such as Mescaline from the Peyote cactus,...

Missouri

1415 Ashley Road Boonville, MO 65233 Family Counseling Center of Missouri, Inc. Outpatient Clinic North Central Missouri Mental Health Center Preferred Family Healthcare Inc Brookfield Office Family Guidance Center for Behavioral Healthcare 502 Northland Plaza Cameron, MO 64429 Hannibal Council on Alcohol and Drug Abuse Family Counseling Center, Inc. Women's CSTAR 1210 West Highway 84 Caruthersville, MO 63830 North Central Missouri Mental Health Center 705 Webster Street Chillicothe, MO 64601...

Cocaine Anonymous

Cocaine Anonymous (CA) is a community-based self-help group organization modeled after Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). The basic principles are the same as AA's. The program is based on the ''disease'' model of substance dependence. Achievement and maintenance of abstinence from cocaine is presumed to be facilitated by following the Twelve Steps of CA (which are based on the original Twelve Steps of AA). CA is available to anyone who expresses a desire to stop using cocaine and all other...

Rhode Island Johnston

985 Plainfield Street Johnston, RI 02919 Agency 1126 Hartford Avenue Johnston, RI 02919-7130 Child and Family Services of Newport Newport County Community Mental Health Center 127 Johnnycake Hill Road Middletown, RI 02842 268 Kingstown Road Narragansett, RI 02882 SSTAR of Rhode Island Residential Alcohol Drug Detox 1950 Tower Hill Road North Kingstown, RI 02852 Marathon, Inc. The Lodge at Wallum Lake 2198 Wallum Lake Road Pascoag, RI 02859 2198 Wallum Lake Road Pascoag, RI 02859 101 Bacon...

See Elimination of Drug Addiction and Alcoholism as Qualifying Impairments in Social Security Disability Programs

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. For 60 years after the enactment of the Social Security Act of 1935, America's cash assistance program for impoverished families was Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC Aid to Dependent Children until 1961, when a parental or caretaker grant was added). As the result of liberal court rulings in the 1960s and the separation of casework from the financial administration of recipients' grants in 1972, AFDC became substantially free of the...

Sobriety And Behavioral Addictions

One complication of the term sobriety has been the difficulty of defining it in the context of the so-called process addictions'' or behavioral addictions,'' terms that have been used to distinguish addictions to such activities or behaviors as gambling, shopping, overeating, sexual acting-out, etc. from substance addictions in the strict sense. Unlike alcoholics and drug abusers, people with behavioral addictions cannot always define sobriety'' as simple abstinence. A compulsive overeater, for...

Gavril W Pasternak

METHADONE MAINTENANCE PROGRAMS The history of methadone treatment offers a striking example of the benefits and limits of research findings on public attitudes and policies for methadone maintenance treatment. To understand methadone maintenance treatment, it is necessary to appreciate the profound stigma attached to both patients and treatment providers. This establishes the context for understanding how a modality with the most extensive research base in the addiction treatment field...

Kansas

Northeast Kansas Mental Health Center 1301 North 2nd Street Atchison, KS 66002 Valley Hope at Augusta Medical Complex 2101 Dearborn Street Augusta, KS 67010 Beloit Juvenile Correctional Facility 1720 North Hersey Street Beloit, KS 67420 12215 State Avenue Bonner Springs, KS 66012 Citizens Medical Center Substance Abuse Services 100 East College Drive Colby, KS 67701 Thomas County Council on Alcohol Drug Abuse, Inc. 775 East College Drive Colby, KS 67701 501 Central Avenue Columbus, KS 66725...

Scott E Lukas Revised by Rebecca Marlow Ferguson

CHOCOLATE An ingredient of many popular treats candies, sweets, baked goods, soft drinks, hot drinks, ice cream, and other frozen desserts. It is prepared, often as a paste, from the roasted crushed seeds (called cocoa beans) of the small South American cacao tree called Theobroma cacao (this is not the shrub known as the COCA PLANT, which produces COCAINE, Erythroxylon coca). The cacao tree has small yellowish flowers, followed by fleshy yellow pods with many seeds. The dried, partly fermented...

Summary

Drinking alcohol and involvement in criminal behavior frequently occur together. Some of the time alcohol has a causal role in crime, but often it is merely present. Drinking is most likely to be relevant causally to expressive interpersonal violence including family violence. Drinking can increase the risk of being victimized as well. Drinking may also sometimes help account for the commission of crimes to obtain money to support the habit, but alcohol is not a major factor in the occurrence...

Skin Damage And Drugs

SLANG AND JARGON Slang terms in the drug subculture are constantly changing, as its ethnic, social, and demographic composition changes and as new illicit drugs roll in and roll out with the tides of fashion, including geographical variations. Yet certain terms show a remarkable durability such as some of those for heroin (trademarked Heroin in Germany, 1898) a narcotic that has been a staple street anodyne since the early 1900s. Other drug-related terms have come into the mainstream to become...

Idaho

583 West Sexton Street Blackfoot, ID 83221 Aerie Addictions Recovery Center, Inc. 9600 West Brookside Lane Boise, ID 83703 Boise Center for Recovery Outpatient Services Crossroads Counseling Services 1010 North Orchard Street Suite 2 First Step for Women First Step for Men 1818 West State Street Boise, ID 83702 2503 West State Street Boise, ID 83702 710 North 6th Street Boise, ID 83706 Saint Alphonsus Addiction Recovery Center Veterans' Affairs Medical Center Substance Abuse Treatment Programs...

Persistence Of The Moral Perspective

Despite the preponderance of medical opinion that some drug and alcohol users have a disorder a diminished capacity to choose freely whether or not to use a particular substance the moral models retain some vitality. In 1882, when the disease concept was first gaining momentum, the Reverend J. E. Todd wrote an essay entitled ''Drunkenness a Vice, Not a Disease.'' In the late 1980s, the disease concept critics Fingarette and Peele put forth almost precisely the same thesis. Peele has argued that...

Carcinogenesis

The likelihood of a substance to cause cancer is called carcinogenicity this is determined in several ways. The first is to see if cells grown in vitro (in a test tube) with the potential carcinogen develop cell-structure abnormalities in the new-grown cells. The second is to see if the substance will result in cancers in animals. The third is to look at the clinical course of a disease in a human patient. Finally, the outcomes in a group of people exposed to the substance will be compared to...

Harrison M Trice

Therapeutic Communities Therapeutic communities (TCs) are drug-free residential treatment facilities for drug and or alcohol addiction. TCs emerged in the 1960s as a self-help alternative to the conventional medical and psychiatric approaches being used at that time. Most traditional TCs have similar features, including their organizational structure, staffing patterns, perspectives, rehabilitative regimes, and a twelve- to eighteen-month duration of stay. They differ greatly, however, in size...

Dace S Svikis Roy W Pickens

Psychoanalytic Perspective Increased vulnerability to Alcohol and drugs is related to the coming together of a number of influences, each of which is itself of varying strength. Our biologies, our individual social and cultural settings and backgrounds, our personal idiosyncratic life experiences, and the persons we become as a result of all these may contribute to the likelihood of our using drugs and then of our continuing to use them. We are neither vulnerable nor invulnerable to using drugs...

Opioid Dependence Course Of The Disorder Over Time Opioid

Dependence is the modern diagnostic term for narcotic addiction, but the older term is still often used. This entry, however, uses the modern term. The term opioid refers to natural and synthetic substances that have morphine-like effects. The term opiate is generally used in a more restricted sense to refer to MORPHINE, HEROIN, CODEINE, and similar drugs derived from OPIUM. OPIOID dependence is defined as a cluster of symptoms related to continued use of an opioid drug. One of the prominent...

Myroslava Romach Karen Parker

MYTHS ABOUT ADDICTION AND ITS TREATMENT As of the year 2000, many medical facts about the causes of addiction, its nature, the best ways to treat its symptoms, and the possibility of devising a full, permanent cure remain unknown. However, research has already established that the myths listed below are false. Unfortunately, these common myths cause the general public and even many physicians to be needlessly unsympathetic to addicts. Myth Addiction is an acute condition, like a broken leg or...

Marie Ragghianti Revised by Carl Leukefeld

COFFEE Coffee is the world's most common source of CAFFEINE, providing a little more than half of all caffeine consumed daily. In the United States, coffee is usually a beverage made by percolation or infusion from the roasted and ground or pounded seeds of the coffee tree (genus Coffea), a large evergreen shrub or small tree, which was native to Africa but now is grown widely in warm regions for commercial crops. Caffeine from coffee accounts for an estimated 125 milligrams of the 211...

JiL

Med-Low Med-High Religious Commitment smokers. Between 1989 and 1999, the proportion of cigarette users and marijuana users rose somewhat for year-to-year changes in substance use, see Johnston et al. (2000). For the present purposes, the most important finding in Figure 1 is that religion was linked to drug use at all three times, although the relationships appear a bit more dramatic during periods of heavier use. Because high religious commitment is associated with low likelihood of drug use,...

Money Laundering

Treasury Department agencies that play a role in controlling illicit drugs include the U.S. Customs Service, which stops and seizes illegal drugs as well as other contraband being smuggled into the United States The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms (BATF), which investigates violations of laws dealing with weapons, particularly federal drug offenses invoking weapons and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), which assists in financial investigations, particularly money laundering. Two...

Urine Testing Methods

Urine is the most commonly used fluid for drug screening. The methods most commonly used in toxicology laboratories are immunoassay, chromatographic and chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. These methods vary considerably with respect to their sensitivity and reliability. Thin-layer chromatography is least expensive, gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC MS), which is considered as nearly perfect or ''gold standard'', is the most expensive. Table 2 summarizes the...

Drug Abuse Policy Office Dapo Office Of Policy Development

Similar in organization and responsibilities to the preceding DPO, the Drug Abuse Policy Office (DAPO) was the principal EOP drug-abuse staff during the eight years of President Ronald W. Reagan's administration. In 1981, DAPO was established within the White House Office of Policy Development. Directors. Carlton E. Turner, 1981-1986 (also Special Assistant to the President promoted in March 1985 to Deputy assistant to the President). Dr. Donald Ian MacDonald, 1987-1989, (Special Assistant to...

Iatrogenic Addiction Nonopioids See Prescription Drug Abuse

IBOGAINE The roots of the shrub Tabernanthe iboga first aroused pharmacological interest in 1864 when a French naval surgeon brought some back from Gabon, West Africa. The root was eaten by various Gabonese tribes as part of initiation ceremonies of puberty and was said to produce intoxication, visions, and a reduced need for sleep. An active alkaloid, ibogaine (C20 H26 N2 O), was isolated in 1901 from the roots, bark, and leaves of Tabernanthe iboga. In the early 1900s, some medical...

Substance Abuse And Family Life

It has been estimated that abuse is associated with psychological disorders in about 20 percent of cases (Stark & Flitcraft, 1988). The family plays an important role in factors relating to the development, maintenance, and treatment of substance abuse. The fundamental significance of families as dynamic systems has been recognized and studied (Wolin et al., 1980). Today, treatment plans for substance abusers typically involve family members or significant others. The disorganizing impact of...

Centerstone Mental Health Centers Luton Mental Health Services 1921 Ransom Place Nashville TN 37217

Cumberland Heights Alcohol and Drug Treatment New Avenues Save 5115 Harding Place Nashville, TN 37201 Women's Residence 1017 Burchwood Avenue Nashville, TN 37216 Lloyd C. Elam Mental Health Center Meharry Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program 1005 Dr. David B. Todd, Jr., Boulevard Metro Health Department Chemical Dependency Program 526 8th Avenue South Nashville, TN 37203 129 7th Avenue South Nashville, TN 37203 Parthenon Pavilion CMC Dual Treatment Program 2401 Murphy Avenue Nashville, TN 37203 1601...

American Indians And Drug

AMERICAN SOCIETY OF ADDICTION MEDICINE (ASAM) The American Society of Addiction Medicine (4601 North Park Avenue, Arcade Suite 101, Chevy Chase, MD 20815 301656-3920 http www.asam.org) is a not-forprofit organization of physicians in all medical specialties and subspecialties who devote a significant part of their practice to treating patients addicted to, or having problems with, alcohol, nicotine, and other drugs. The society strives to have addiction recognized as a medical disorder by...

Ed50

PHARMACOLOGY PSYCHOACTIVE RECEPTOR DRUG PSYCHOACTIVE DRUG PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY PLANTS, DRUGS, FROM Department of Neuro-Science and Psychiatry Brain Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL CLONIDINE National Institute on Drug Abuse, Baltimore, MD RESEARCH, ANIMAL MODEL CONDITIONED WITHDRAWAL Department of Psychiatry Toronto Hospital, Toronto, Canada BULIMIA NERVOSA Crime and Justice Research Institute Philadelphia, PA DRUG COURTS Kroll Associates, Larchmont, NY MONEY LAUNDERING...

Arizona

Mental Health Center Substance Abuse Services Mohave Mental Health Clinic Outpatient and Day Treatment Camp Verde Yavapai Apache Alcohol Substance Abuse Program Behavioral Health Agency of Central Arizona 120 West Main Street Casa Grande, AZ 85222-4820 120 West Main Street Casa Grande, AZ 85222 PGBHA Helping Associates Inc. 1901 North Trekell Road, Suite A Casa Grande, AZ 85222 100 West Boston Street, Suite 5 Chandler, AZ 85224 Chandler Valley Hope and Drug Treatment Center 501 North...

Nicotine And Tobacco

TOBACCO is a tall, herbaceous plant, the leaves of which are harvested, cured, and rolled into cigars, shredded for use in cigarettes and pipes, and processed for chewing or snuff. Tobacco has become a commercial crop in almost all tropical countries as Some of the Plants Used in Making Drugs and Alcoholic Beverages. Some of the Plants Used in Making Drugs and Alcoholic Beverages. well as in many temperate ones. The main source of commercial tobacco is Nicotiana tabacum, although Nicotiana...

Daniel X Freedman R N Pechnick

HALLUCINOGENS The term hallucinogen literally means producer of HALLUCINATIONS. A variety of drugs and medicines as well as various disease states can lead to the development of hallucinations. They can occur during a high fever, after acute brain injuries, or as part of a DELIRIUM, accompanied by confusion in judgment, intellect, memory, emotion, and level of consciousness. The patient is said to be ''out of it'' not in touch with reality. In fact, many infections affecting the brain,...

Nevada

Carson City Community Counseling Center 120 North Harbin Avenue Carson City, NV 89701 Ruby View Counseling Center Outpatient 401 Railroad Street, Suite 301 Elko, NV 89801 Residential Treatment 3740 East Idaho Street Elko, NV 89801 Teen Discovery 1297 Idaho Street Elko, NV 89801 Bristlecone Counseling Service Outpatient Churchill Council Alcohol and Drug Treatment 165 North Carson Street Fallon, NV 89406 Bridge Counseling Associates Outpatient 1701 West Charleston Boulevard Las Vegas, NV 89104...

Wiklers Pharmacologic Theory Of Drug Addiction Abraham

Wikler (died 1981) was one of the first researchers who, in the late 1940s, strongly advocated the idea that drug abuse and relapse following treatment are influenced by basic learning processes. Early in his career, Wikler became interested in reports from relapsed heroin addicts that despite being free of withdrawal symptoms during treatment and upon discharge, they experienced withdrawal symptoms and craving when they returned to their drug-use environments and that these feelings were...

Linda Dykstra

PAIN, DRUGS USED FOR Pain is a sensation unique to an individual. Its perception depends on the injury involved and the situation or context. A bruise obtained in a football game may not be appreciated at the time of the injury, yet in other circumstances the pain from a minor injury, such as stubbing a toe, may be overwhelming. The extent of the injury does not predict the amount of pain experienced it is this wide variability that makes the treatment of pain difficult. Within the brain, there...

Illinois

891 South Route 53 Addison, IL 60101 Southeastern Edwards Family Counseling Center DUI Program 254 South 5th Street Albion, IL 62806 1107 South Main Street Algonquin, IL 60102 YMCA of Metropolitan Chicago Adolescent Outpatient Treatment 3801 West 127th Street Alsip, IL 60803 Chestnut Health Systems, Inc. Outpatient Program Community Counseling Center of Northern Madison County, Inc. Saint Clare's Hospital Chemical Dependency Treatment Center 800 North Main Street Anna, IL 62906 Mercy Counseling...

Ethyl Chloride

This is a local anesthetic, CNS depressant, and refrigerant that has been subject to abuse by inhalation. Ethyl chloride has a very high vapor pressure, and spraying it directly into the mouth may freeze the tissues of the throat and cause fatal la-ryngospasm (contraction of the muscles of the throat and larynx), and the shutoff of air to the lungs. Ethyl chloride has been sold in canisters and spray cans (e.g., Black Jack). A related chemical, methyl chloride, has similar effects and was used...

Using The Tactics Of Terror

The second aspect covered under the rubric of narcoterrorism has been the drug traffickers' use of the tactics of political terrorism such as the car bomb, kidnapping, and selective assassination to undermine the resolve of various governments at the highest levels to fight the drug trade. Traffickers usually use members of their own organization to carry out such attacks. Sometimes, however, traffickers have subcontracted to guerrillas. In late 1990, Colombia's Pablo Escobar used the ELN to...

National Council On Alcoholism And Drug Dependence Ncadd

This is the ninth largest voluntary health organization in the United States and the country's major public advocate for the prevention and treatment of alcohol and other drug problems. Working through hundreds of local affiliate councils, state councils, and its New York City and Washington offices, NCADD sponsors prevention and education programs, information and referral services, scientific and clinical consensus development, public policy advocacy, and other related activities. NCADD was...

Conclusions

Evidence that showed that raising the drinking age to 21 reduced deaths and injuries in car crashes was a major factor in the debate about the drinking age. Other arguments were also heard, such as Is it unconstitutional to discriminate solely on the basis of age Federal courts have ruled that the drinking age is not discriminatory, because (1) drinking is not a fundamental right, (2) age is not an inherently suspect criterion for discrimination, (3) and the higher drinking age has a ''rational...

Multiple Contributing Causative Factors

As the twenty first century begins, there is not widespread agreement as to the exact cause(s) of pathological gambling. However, as with many other disorders, a broad model is emerging which includes four major areas of risk factors for developing this disorder biological, social, psychological, and spiritual (Rugle, 1993). Biological. Genetic research in the late 1990s has provided preliminary evidence of a genetic link among pathological gambling and other addictive and impulse control...

William A Frosch

Race Despite reservations about the use of race and ethnicity in health research (e.g., Bhopal & Donaldson, 1998 LaVeist, 1994 Williams et al., 1994), this variable remains one of the most often reported socio-demographic characteristics in drug abuse dependence studies. Data from the Monitoring the Future Study (Johnston, O'Malley & Bachman, 1996) and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey (Centers for Disease Control, 1995) are consistent in showing that black adolescents are less likely to use...

Maine

New Directions Albion School Street Albion, ME 04910-1568 Aroostook Mental Health Center Outpatient Services Catholic Charities Maine Saint Francis House 81 Main Street, Box 3 Auburn, ME 04210 New Directions 1 Weston Court Augusta, ME 04330 74 Winthrop Street Augusta, ME 04330 Maine General Medical Center Spruce Street Residence Veterans' Affairs Medical Center Chemical Dependence Recovery Program Route 17 East, 116-A2 Augusta, ME 04330 268 Stillwater Avenue Bangor, ME 04401 27 State Street...

Rational Authority Drug addicts

Are reported to have a low tolerance for ANXIETY. As a result, few are able to voluntarily sustain an extended period of drug treatment, which is necessary for meaningful intervention. Instead, they tend to disengage themselves from treatment programs once the anxiety has been brought to the surface (Brill & Lieberman, 1969). ''Rational authority,'' a late 1960s euphemism for mandatory (but not necessarily punitive) treatment, became a basis for holding addicts in a long-term treatment...

Conduct Disorder In Children

One of several childhood behavioral disturbances, Conduct Disorder refers to repeated patterns of conduct by a child that violate the basic rights of others or transgress age-appropriate societal rules. The behavior is socially disruptive and generally more serious in its consequences than typical childhood mischief. The duration of the behavior, its severity, and the kinds of actions involved distinguish conduct disorder from general misbehavior. Conduct disorder is the most common behavioral...

Connecticut

Program 1635 Fairfield Avenue Bridgeport, CT 06605 Administrative Unit Golden Hill Treatment Center Detox Methadone Maintenance Regional Adolescent Program (RAP) 171 Golden Hill Street Bridgeport, CT 06604 Center for Human Services 1549 Fairfield Avenue Bridgeport, CT 06605 Regional Counseling Services 480 Bond Street Bridgeport, CT 06610 Midwestern Connecticut Council on Alcoholism McDonough House Intensive and Intermediate Residential Programs 132 Hut Hill Road Bridgewater, CT 06752 25 Newell...

Leo E Hollister Revised by Rebecca J Frey

THEOBROMINE This Alkaloid belongs to the class of drugs called methylxanthines it is similar to theophylline and to Caffeine. Theobromine (3,7-dimethylxanthine), however, is somewhat weaker than these two compounds and currently has almost no practical use in medicine. Theobromine is found in the seeds of the plant Theobroma cacao, which is the well-known source of Chocolate and cocoa. The cacao seeds have caffeine too (as does Tea, which contains small amounts of theobromine and theophylline)...

Mark S Gold

CLUB DRUGS Club drugs is a term that encompasses those drugs commonly abused within the context of the club and rave scenes which have developed over the past decade in the United States and Europe. Club drugs are a diverse group in terms of pharmacology, psychological effect, and toxicity. They form a unified grouping because of the context in which they are used, the clubs and raves that define turn-of-the-century youth culture. Because of the diversity and pleasure seeking inherent to the...

Alcoholism Treatment

The influence of Alcoholics Anonymous can hardly be exaggerated. Whatever its therapeutic success a point of warm debate among scholars AA has profoundly affected the treatment of people now regularly known as alcoholics. AA's impact has been both ideological and institutional that is, its promotion of ''disease theory'' within the mutual-aid tradition has changed how recent generations think about excessive or problem-causing alcohol consumption and treatment methods, and the penetration of...

Alcohol Summary And Further Questions

Chronic alcohol ingestion has potentially devastating effects on neurocognitive functioning. Impairments associated with alcohol use range from transient deficits observed in acute intoxication to potentially permanent and severe disorders, such as alcoholic dementia. There are also various other neurological conditions associated with chronic alcohol abuse. Some of these are relatively common in alcoholics, including cerebellar degeneration, peripheral neuropathies, movement disorders, and...

Drug Traffic Control See Drug Interdiction

DRUG TRAFFICKING See International Drug Supply Systems DRUG TYPES There are many ways to classify drugs, depending on the purposes for the classification. For example, a classification can be based on the chemical properties of drugs and may actually disregard the effects the drugs have on the body, or it may be based on legal principles, such as legal versus illegal, or prescription versus over-the-counter (prescription not needed). For purposes of discussion and teaching, the various drugs...

Neil L Benowitz Alice B Fredericks Revised by Andrew J Homburg

TOBACCO INDUSTRY The tobacco industry is made up of the complex of primary suppliers, manufacturers, distributors (both wholesale and retail), advertising agencies, and media outlets that produce, promote, and sell tobacco products, as well as the law, public relations, and lobbying firms that work to protect these products from stringent public-health regulation and control. In due time, however, these precautions failed. The industry evolved in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century...

Delaware

Jones Center for Behavioral Health Dover Air Force Base Substance Abuse Office Ellendale School House Ellendale, DE 19941 410 South Bedford Street Georgetown, DE 19947-1850 219-221 South Race Street Georgetown, DE 19947 431 East Market Street Georgetown, DE 19947 Psychotherapeutic Community Services Associates 16 North Railroad Avenue Georgetown, DE 19947-1242 11 West Pine Street Georgetown, DE 19947 526-D North Dupont Highway 113 Professional Building Georgetown, DE 19947 219 South Walnut...

North Carolina

Program 110 West Walker Road Asheboro, NC 27203 129 Biltmore Avenue Asheville, NC 28801 Blue Ridge Center Adult Substance Abuse Program 283 Biltmore Avenue Asheville, NC 28801 31 College Place, Suite 304-D Asheville, NC 28801-2483 260 Merrimon Avenue Asheville, NC 28801 277 Biltmore Avenue Asheville, NC 28801 Veterans' Affairs Medical Center Substance Abuse Treatment Program 1100 Tunnel Road Asheville, NC 28805 35 North Main Street Belmont, NC 28012-3155 Alcohol and Drug Abuse Treatment Center...

Gangs And Drug Selling

In the 1980s, the confluence of social problems involving gangs, violence, and drug trafficking changed both popular and political perceptions of gangs. Beginning with the crack-cocaine crisis, youth gangs have been confounded with new forms of drug distribution organizations that involve young men and women in ''underclass'' neighborhoods. This terminology has been interchangeably used to describe these groups as gangs. Indeed, the growth in cocaine use in the 1980s did coincide with more...

Perpetuation Of Drug Abuse Euphoria And Withdrawal

Many people who are drug- or alcohol-dependent want to stop their habit, but often they have a difficult time doing so. There are at least two reasons for this difficulty. First, the drugs produce pleasant or euphoric feelings that the user wants to experience again and again. Second, unpleasant effects can occur when the drug use is stopped. The latter effect, commonly known as WITHDRAWAL, has been shown after prolonged use of many drugs, including alcohol, OPIATES (such as Heroin), Sedative...

Eradication Results

Between 1982 and 1989, Mexico's rapidly deteriorating economy, bureaucratic inertia, technical inefficiency, poor management, low morale, complacency, and corruption led to the decreased effectiveness of the eradication program. Coun-termeasures by growers who planted smaller fields, at higher altitudes, under cover of foliage, during more than the two traditional growing seasons, fur ther decreased program success. In the mid-1970s, the eradication campaign was managed in large part by...

Coerced Treatment For Substance Offenders The logic for

Coerced treatment is that substance abusers have limited internal motivation and consequently need to be externally motivated to enter treatment in order to change their behaviors. Expected change includes reduced arrests, reduced crime, and no drug use. It is important to keep in mind that, from a criminal justice point of view, no drug use is expected, which is different from a public health harm reduction approach. Consequently, substance offenders who have limited internal motivation to...

New York

Alcohol Crisis Center 75 New Scotland Avenue Unit G Capital District Psychiatric Center Albany, NY 12208 Albany County Substance Abuse Prevention Clinic 845 Central Avenue East 1 Albany, NY 12206 575 Broadway Street Albany, NY 12204 (AHAP) Supportive Living Facility 250 Clinton Avenue Albany, NY 12206 Eight Twenty River Street, Inc. Eleanor Young Clinic 134 Franklin Street Albany, NY 12202 Hospitality House Therapeutic Community, Inc. Residential Pearl Street Counseling Center,...

Historical Roots

Mexico's international drug-control efforts have their roots in the SHANGHAI Convention of 1909 and the Hague Opium Convention of 1911-1912. In 1923, Mexico's President Alvaro Obregon prohibited the production of opium and condemned Officials from the Mexican Attorney General's office display to the media one ton of confiscated marijuana and three suspects in Mexico City, March 1, 1996. (AP Photo Jose Luis Magana) what was then widespread and increasing drug-induced violence. In 1934, President...

Florida

400 Maitland Avenue Altamonte Springs, FL 32701 401 whooping Loop, Suite 1549 Altamonte Springs, FL 32701 378 Whooping Loop, Suite 1238 Altamonte Springs, FL 32701 325 West Main Street, Suite A Apopka, FL 32712 Coastal Recovery Centers, Inc. Arcadia Office 14 East Oak Street Arcadia, FL 34266 Detoxification Unit Women's Residential 2725 Highway 60 East Bartow, FL 33830 Veterans' Affairs Medical Center Substance Abuse Treatment Program 10000 Bay Pines Boulevard Bay Pines, FL 33744 149 Southeast...

Kentucky

Adanta Behavioral Health Services Albany Clinic Our Lady of Bellefonte Hospital Chemical Dependency Careunit Saint Christopher Drive Ashland, KY 41101 Withdrawal Unit 201 22nd Street Ashland, KY 41101 Boyd County Outpatient Unit Withdrawal Unit 201 22 Street Ashland, KY 41101 317 Cumberland Avenue Barbourville, KY 40906 Knox County Court House Fiscal Court Conference Room Barbourville, KY 40906 300 North 2nd Street Bardstown, KY 40004 331 South 3 Street Bardstown, KY 40004 116 East Flaget...

District Of Columbia

Andromeda Transcultural Hispanic Mental Health Center Bureau of Rehabilitation, Inc. Community Care Center Concerned Citizens on Alcohol and Drug Abuse Pregnant Postpartum Outpatient Women's Program Northeast Treatment Centers Kirkwood Detox 3315 Kirkwood Highway Wilmington, DE 19808 Psychotherapeutic Services, Inc. Relapse Prevention Continuous Treatment Sodat Counseling and Evaluation Center 625 Orange Street Wilmington, DE 19801 Med Center 1601 Kirkwood Highway 116B Wilmington, DE 19805 DC...

Massachusetts

Boston Childrens Services Alcohol Drug Use Assessment and Treatment Program 271 Huntington Avenue Boston, MA 02116 Acupuncture Clinic Addiction Services Outpatient Counseling 723 Massachusetts Avenue Boston, MA 02118 Youth Intervention Program 47 West Street Boston, MA 02111 1010 Massachusetts Avenue Boston, MA 02118 Acupuncture Detoxification Clinic Outpatient Substance Abuse Services 7 Haviland Street Boston, MA 02115 Justice Resource Institute Health Division 130 Boylston Street Boston, MA...

High School Senior Survey

Use of illegal drugs by large numbers of young people in the United States became an issue of considerable concern during the late 1960s and early 1970s. At that time, there were few accurate data available to assess the extent of use on a national basis. In 1975, Lloyd Johnston and Jerald Bach-man of the University of Michigan initiated Monitoring the Future An Ongoing Study of the Lifestyles and Values of Youth, which was intended to address this lack of information. One of the major purposes...

Colorado

Centennial Mental Health Center Substance Abuse Services 871 East First Street Akron, CO 80720 San Luis Valley Mental Health Addiction Services 522 Alamosa Avenue Alamosa, CO 81101 7850 Vance Drive, Suite 280 Arvada, CO 80003-2128 Empowerment Counseling Services Northwest 5460 Ward Road, Suite 215 Arvada, CO 80002 Colorado West Aspen Counseling Center 405 Castle Creek Road, Suite 9 Aspen, CO 81611 Springs Counseling Center Youth Facility 455 Rio Grande Place Aspen, CO 81611 509-A Sable...

Prevention of Alcoholism The Ledermann Model of Consumption

Ledermann model of alcohol consumption is an important concept for anyone who wishes to understand the underpinnings of modern policy efforts to prevent heavy drinking and alcoholism. The point of departure for this concept is a set of observations about how alcohol consumption is distributed in human societies. Many have thought of this distribution as occurring in two parts. First, there is the great mass of normal drinkers their drinking might be plotted as a bell-shaped curve, with a few...

Family Treatment

As described earlier, dysfunctional family life is one potential contributor to the development of drug addictions in family members. The reciprocal nature of addictions and disorganized families, however, is evident in that not only may dysfunctional families produce addictive behaviors in their members, but these addictions, in turn, may affect the quality of family life, thus negatively impacting the behavior of family members and devitalizing or fracturing family relationships. The most...

The Disease Concept

Acceptance and awareness that they are able to change if they take appropriate action to deal with their chronic condition is the message in the final treatment stage. The rehabilitation staff develops an aftercare plan with the client that will continue to support some of the changes that have taken place during treatment and it encourages changes that will promote ongoing recovery. Characteristically, clients comment on their increased awareness of simple pleasures and being with other people...

Magic Mushroom See Psilocybin Mandatory Sentencing Mandatory

Sentencing laws provide that people convicted of particular crimes receive particular sentences. Examples include laws specifying that people convicted of selling Heroin or Cocaine within 1,000 yards of a school receive at least a three-year prison term, or that people convicted of selling more than four ounces of heroin or cocaine receive at least a five-year prison term. The latter are referred to as mandatory minimum sentences. Some mandatory sentencing laws require life sentences. A...

Pennsylvania

115 North 9th Street Akron, PA 17501-1341 Drug and Alcohol Services of Beaver Valley 524 Franklin Avenue Aliquippa, PA 15001 Mount Washington Homes Pleasantview Homes Moffett Run Road Aliquippa, PA 15001 100 Moffet Run Road Aliquippa, PA 15001 112 North 9th Street Allentown, PA 18102 1812 Allen Street Allentown, PA 18104 961 Marcon Boulevard Suite 304 Allentown, PA 18103 Saint Luke's Addictions Service Halfway Home of Lehigh Valley 121 North 8th Street Allentown, PA 18101 Saint Luke's Hospital...

Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation

ACT (NARA) Public Law 89-793, the Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act (NARA), was passed by Congress in 1966. This legislation was designed to allow the use of the federal courts and criminal-justice system to compel drug addicts to participate in treatment. Several developments provided the context for this legislation. In the early 1960s, the problem of NARCOTIC drug use and ADDICTION were perceived to be increasing. There was also a perception that treatment was not particularly effective and...